B. The development of machines, including steam engines and the internal combustion engine, made it possible to exploit vast new resources of energy stored in fossil fuels, specifically coal and oil. D. As the new methods of industrial production became more common in parts of northwestern Europe, they spread to other parts of Europe and the rest of the world. E. The “Second industrial revolution” led to new methods in the production of steel, chemicals, electricity and precision machinery during the second half of the 19th century. F. The changes in the mode of production also stimulated the professionalization of sciences and led to the increasing application of science to new forms of technology. II. New patterns of global trade and production developed that further integrated the global economy as industrialists sought raw materials and new markets for the increasing amount of goods produced in their factories. C. The rapid increases in productivity caused by industrial production encouraged industrialized states to seek out new consumer markets for their finished goods. C. Rapid urbanization that accompanied global capitalism often led to unsanitary conditions, as well as to new forms of community. The growth of new empires challenged the power of existing land-based empires of Eurasia. New ideas about nationalism, race, gender, class and culture also developed that facilitated the spread of transoceanic empires and new states, as well as justified anti-imperial resistance and the formation of new communal identities. D. New states developed on the edges of an empire. These rebellions sometimes resulted in the formation of new states and stimulated the development of new ideologies. IV. The global spread of Enlightenment thought and the increasing number of rebellions stimulated new transnational ideologies and solidarities. B. Because of the nature of the new modes of transportation, both internal and external migrants increasingly relocated to cities. B. The new global capitalist economy continued to rely on coerced and semicoerced labor migration, including slavery, Chinese and Indian indentured servitude, and convict labor. B. Migrants often created ethnic enclaves, which helped transplant their culture into new environments and facilitated the development of migrant support networks.
End of Enlightenment? Not if we fight for it – Philosophers for Change
Perhaps the neoliberal assault on education is not the destruction of democracy, but rather something much more profound; it may be the end of the Enlightenment. Enlightenment thinkers such as Denis Diderot, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Marquis Condorcet, Mary Wollstonecraft, Thomas Jefferson and later Georg Hegel all wrote of the power of a progressive and liberal education grounded in history and the liberal arts; they wrote about civic duty, public service and the infallibility of true democracy. After the events that higher education helped to inspire in the 1960s, conservatives began an assault on public K-12 and higher education. With this in mind, the present analysis argues that the Enlightenment may be coming to an end with the assault on public education and critical thinking. While education always had economic uses, such as helping the individual secure a high paying job and being workforce trained, education – especially higher education – was always thought of as primarily a social good with the ability to enhance the commonweal. In the case of education, the policies of state governments, as well as the federal government, are the primary tools to restructure K-12 and higher education from social to market goods. Standardized testing companies and educational technology companies, which have grown into billion dollar entities and do billions of dollars of world trade, have lobbied the US government and other governments across the world to hold education accountable. Performance based funding sets up definable goals for higher education institutions to meet, such as graduation rates, graduation of STEM graduates, use of data etc. Milton Friedman once remarked that public education in the US was a socialist island in a free-market sea. More than just greed, there is an ideological element to performance based funding policies and NCLB. These policies espouse and promote a certain view of education. Conservatives are afraid of the potential of public education at all levels to inspire social change. After the events of the 1960s, it became apparent what public education was capable of. The Enlightenment is based on the notion of criticism and humanism, both of which are not valued in American public education. Zumeta, W. “What does it mean to be accountable? Dimensions and implications of higher education’s public accountability”. The writer is a doctoral student in higher education.
Overrated Rationality is the Enlightenment Mistake
Lastly, we see in some humans a limited form of what we call consciousness or self-awareness. The philosophers of the enlightenment who created the ideas of modernity predicated their ideas on human society on the assumption that most humans are rational and self-aware. The vast majority of humans adhere to whatever ideas they are taught early in life without ever a thought. For the most part, humans thrive by banding into tight collectives and living their lives railroaded by instinctual protocols of social interaction, courtship, and rearing offspring just like pretty much any other high level social mammal. The individual as enlightenment thinkers conceive of one, is a being who hardly exists amongst humans at all. We have only to read for 15 minutes about the inbuilt cognitive biases in humans and immediately begin to recall some of the stupid decisions we’ve all made. From the erroneous underlying assumptions of human rationality and consciousness come the catastrophic ideologies spawned from the Enlightenment. Capitalism and Marxism in their various forms are portrayed often as opposites, yet both come from the same source, Enlightenment thinkers who believed societies were composed of free rational individuals. Marxism believes the masses of workers ought to rule and Capitalists believe a market formed by the purchases of the masses ought to rule. In the end, what good is all the wealth in the world if the people meant to benefit are destroyed and the sterile units of money still counted dutifully by whirring machines, oblivious to the piles of dusty bones nearby?Ultimately, humans are group selected, like other social and eusocial animals. The ideas that stand the test of time and spread are those that help one group of humans outcompete another. If we would have a successful way of improving life for most people, an idea must first provide for the spread and defense of its adopters. No ideology will have its intended results unless it is grounded in a firm understanding of how people actually are in the real world. Its adoption would depend on those more capable of consciousness subjugating those less aware and the humans most Human in the Enlightenment sense adopting rule over human animals as man establishes rule over beast. Perhaps a banker who rules over a million humans by extracting a penny from each every day through sleight of hand is the natural ruler, parasite, and predator of their herd.