Age of Enlightenment & Expansionism, 1650
During the 80 years and 30 years wars, the culmination of the European Wars of Religion, France switched sides, to join the Protestants which were gaining power. Religious Restrictions Re-Introduced in France: Staunch Catholic Louis XIV abolishes the Edict of Nantes, which ensured religious tolerance for Protestants, gained after French Wars of Religion. War of Grand Alliance – Coalition Against France: England cooperates with other continental powers to curb the dominance of France. France had become a major continental power, at the expense of Spain. War of Spanish Succession (1706-14): Grandson of Louis XIV of France inherits the throne of Spain. Austria had a claim on the throne, and attempted to forcibly make good on it, with the help of the Dutch and Great Britain, which were mostly interested in avoiding a unified Spain and France. War of the Polish Succession (1733): France and Spain want one candidate related to their respective monarchs, and Austria wants another, part of the Habsburg family. Beginning of French and Indian War (1754): Conflict between France and Great Britain over disputed lands west of British colonies in modern U.S. Would become incorporated in Seven Years War in Europe. France performs poorly, sending France into a downward spiral, which helps bring about the French Revolution. France falls from its dominant position among European powers, while Great Britain rises to top after the French & Indian War. France still remains a continental power, due to its population, geopolitical position and cohesion. France Purchases Corsica (1764): France purchases Corsica from Rep. of Genoa, part of France ever since. France would lag behind, since it had a top-caliber upper class, but an uneducated lower-class, and would be ravaged by war in its near abroad and on it own soil, as was also the case with much of the rest of continental Europe. England rises to supremacy after its overwhelming victory over France in the Seven Years War and French and Indian War. GB became more advanced than France, moving toward democracy and capitalism, while France remained feudalistic and elitist.
Enlightened Capitalism and Free Marketeers
Print or PDF. How is society best organized to maximize the happiness of the people? The answer is an intellectually based, empirically proven and emotionally satisfying business operating philosophy that. Free people freely engaging in commerce in free markets – Free Market Capitalism. Act with integrity, honesty and fair dealing, the result is the 6 benefits of Free Market Capitalism: Maximum wealth creation, prosperity and opportunity. The widest distribution of that wealth, prosperity and opportunity. Maximum opportunity for everyone to fulfill their potential. Enough wealth to provide for those who cannot care for themselves, Upward pressure on real wages. This commentary on the Enlightened Capitalist Jean Valjean of LES MISERABLES by Victor Hugo says most eloquently how the Enlightened Capitalist benefits mankind. Enlightened Capitalism is a comprehensive business philosophy that advocates what Victor Hugo’s fictional Jean Valjean did; “Doing well in business, by doing good things for others”. It is essentially a philosophy of enlightened self interest. Directly benefits those who make the business possible, indirectly benefits the community so business can thrive in a stable world. Free Market Capitalism, especially when practiced by Enlightened Capitalists has throughout history provided not only the best, but the only sustainable path to widely dispersed prosperity, opportunity and stability. The mission of capitalism’s greatest advocate, Adam Smith, was not to study the wealth of individuals, but the “Wealth of Nations”. Advocates of Free Market Capitalism too often fail to clearly say that their goal is to help the most people enjoy permanent prosperity. Present the remarkable success enjoyed by Enlightened Capitalists – the Free MarketEErs, Educate the public about Enlightened Capitalism and encourage others to adopt the philosophy, Fund Enlightened Capitalism endeavors in a multitude of ways, and. Advocate political action to create an electoral majority in favor of the policies that will benefit the most people: low tax rates, small government, less regulation and legal reform.
Consumerism and the New Capitalism
For the public at large, the integrating and transformative experiences of culture have been replaced by the collective viewing experience and by participation in consumer trends. The American public has been inundated by an unending parade of commodities and fabricated television spectacles that keeps it preoccupied with the ideals and values of consumerism. Consumerism is the myth that the individual will be gratified and integrated by consuming. The public fetishistically substitutes consumer ideals for the lost acculturating experiences of art, religion and family. The consumer sublimates the desire for cultural fulfillment to the rewards of buying and owning commodities, and substitutes media-manipulated undulations in the public persona for spiritual rebirth. As deceptive advertising and academic nihilism gutted culture of its subjectively realized values, the public was easily swayed onto the path of consumerism. Mass media perpetuates the myth of consumerism as a priority of the New Capitalism. As America settles into its nightly routine of television viewing, corporate profiteers are quick to substitute the lure of material luxury and consumer gratification for the fading spirit. In its duplicitous plot to throttle the public, corporate policy assumes only the self-interested exploitation of the consumer market and environmental resources. More than to simply insure a profit, consumerism is the means by which the New Capitalism maintains control of its buying public. In corporate capitalism the consumer is a target – he is acted upon. In the New Capitalism’s seduction of the television audience, the individuating personality identifies with advertising fantasies and consumer ideals. The affront on human values by mass media advertising has left a well actualized consumer but a poorly individuated personality. While capitalism has been linked to the origin of consciousness, consumerism and advertising deceit have become potential threats to consciousness. The affectiveness of the sociocultural symbol diminishes as its exploitation in the media siphons ineffable content to attract the consumer.