In the current global grassroots movements for social justice, the emphasis has been on the breaking of barriers for social mobility, the creation of safety nets and economic justice. Social justice is invoked today while reinterpreting historical figures such as Bartolomé de las Casas, in philosophical debates about differences among human beings, in efforts for gender, racial and social equality, for advocating justice for migrants, prisoners, the environment, and the physically and mentally disabled. Thomas Pogge’s arguments pertain to a standard of social justice that creates human rights deficits. From its founding, Methodism was a Christian social justice movement. The Pope advocated that the role of the State was to promote social justice through the protection of rights, while the Church must speak out on social issues in order to teach correct social principles and ensure class harmony.
The encyclical Quadragesimo anno of 1931 by Pope Pius XI, encourages a living wage, subsidiarity, and advocates that social justice is a personal virtue as well as an attribute of the social order, saying that society can be just only if individuals and institutions are just. It said that the laity has the specific responsibility of pursuing social justice in civil society and that the church’s active role in social justice should be to inform the debate, using reason and natural law, and also by providing moral and spiritual formation for those involved in politics. The official Catholic doctrine on social justice can be found in the book Compendium of the Social Doctrine of the Church, published in 2004 and updated in 2006, by the Pontifical Council Iustitia et Pax. On the other hand, some scholars reject the very idea of social justice as meaningless, religious, self-contradictory, and ideological, believing that to realize any degree of social justice is unfeasible, and that the attempt to do so must destroy all liberty. Sociologist Carl L.
Bankston has argued that a secular, leftist view of social justice entails viewing the redistribution of goods and resources as based on the rights of disadvantaged categories of people, rather than on compassion or national interest. Social justice is also a concept that is used to describe the movement towards a socially just world, e.g., the Global Justice Movement. Integrating social justice with health inherently reflects the social determinants of health model without discounting the role of the bio-medical model.
Biography, Presidency, & Facts
Michelle Bachelet, in full Verónica Michelle Bachelet Jeria,, Chilean politician who served as president of Chile. Bachelet, then a medical student at the University of Chile, was arrested and sent to a secret prison, where she also was tortured. Although Bachelet’s family history made it difficult for her to find employment in Pinochet’s Chile, eventually she joined a medical clinic that treated victims of torture. In 2000 Ricardo Lagos, the candidate of the Coalition of Parties for Democracy, a group of centre and centre-left parties, was inaugurated as Chile’s first socialist president since Salvador Allende in 1973, and Bachelet was appointed health minister. Largely as a result of those successes, Bachelet found herself among the most popular presidents in Chilean history; however, the constitution prevented her from serving a consecutive term.
In December Bachelet won the runoff decisively to become the first two-time president of Chile since the end of Pinochet’s rule. The common thread in those reforms was Bachelet’s belief that the free-market approach, when applied to social policy, had resulted in very uneven societal benefits and in the persistence of gaping income inequalities-even while Chile’s income per capita had risen from $4,400 in 1990 to almost $22,000 in 2013, according to the World Bank. Bachelet’s administration moved ahead rapidly, introducing dozens of bills, including a tax-reform bill, enacted in September, that increased the corporate tax rate from 20 percent to 27 percent and eliminated a large tax loophole, the so-called FUT, used by wealthy Chilean stockholders to shield corporate income from taxation. Much of the anticipated increase in tax earnings was earmarked to finance Bachelet’s education-reform bill, which included state subsidies to make public higher education free for the poorest 70 percent of Chileans, along with encouraging the creation of more public universities in lieu of private for-profit schools. In 2016, responding to widespread popular protest, Bachelet proposed that Chile’s privately administered pension system be overhauled.
A commission created by Bachelet reported that some 44 percent of pensioners were living below the poverty level during the period 2007-14. Bachelet’s proposal called for a 5 percent increase in pension payments and for an infusion of about $1.5 billion in state funds into the system, along with an increase in employer contributions.
The Time Machine Themes
As the Time Traveler theorizes, the working class has been pushed underground for so long that it has evolved into a distinct, nocturnal species. Wells tells his Victorian audience to look at its own time, in which the industrial revolution has further divided the classes, and consider the possibility of its turning into the Eloi if capitalism continues to run rampant. One of the major social theories of the late 19th-century adapted Charles Darwin’s theories on evolution to justify 19th-century social stratification between the rich and poor. Social Darwinism ignored this idea and contended that the social environment was much like the cutthroat natural environment, and that those who succeeded were biologically destined to do so and to continue in their march to human perfection. The Time Traveler soon discovers that the advancements of civilization have enfeebled the Eloi; without any pressing requirements for survival, they have become weak, lazy, and stupid.
While their civilization has seemingly become perfect, they have become decidedly imperfect. The changing environment may not always produce desirable changes in man, and Social Darwinism’s argument that those who succeed in a given environment are naturally superior is not valid. The concept of entropy states that systems tend toward disorder and loss of energy over time, an idea many perceive as contradictory to evolution, since evolution implies that systems grow more ordered in their complexity over time. Ultimately, Wells’s championing of entropy forms his argument against the existence of Social Darwinism; rather than becoming more perfect, we are gradually losing our energy. The White Sphinx is a curious landmark in 802,701 AD.
The Morlocks stow the Time Machine inside its enclosed bronze pedestal, so it becomes a symbolic and literal barrier for the Time Traveler, much as the sphinx blocked the entrance for the Greek hero Oedipus. The sphinx has a direct relationship to the Time Traveler’s plight; a symbol of futurity and of man’s submission to God, the Egyptian Sphinx faces the rising sun god Ra each day in worship. The TT, on the other hand, must in some ways defy God by embracing rational science as he gains mastery over time, and he must also break into the sphinx to escape from the future and go back in time.