JR Test Site News for 01-26-2018

UFO Disclosure impossible under capitalism

This is obviously some communistic insight on the subject. “The current prevailing capitalist economic system is driven by greed and exploitation. Such a milieu of greed and exploitation would seek to either cover-up or to spread manipulative dis-information about things.” If that doesn’t sound VERY anti-capitalistic…then tell me what it DOES sound like…please…. Although I agree on SOME points, I would have to disagree on others. It isn’t CAPITALISM that is causing the Government to People social relations to be diminished…it is Democracy. I’m not against it…I’d rather the government keep to themselves and only do for me what they should be doing. Telling me about UFO cover ups is NOT something they should be doing. That’s like telling me to potty train my nephew when their father or mother could easily do it just the same. The government can have hobbies…but it needs to keep to itself about them. Yes, taxpayer’s money goes into this…blah blah blah. I really do doubt they’re spending money AT ALL on UFO coverups. We have other problems…. And in other countries with free-trade….I’m sure WE are THEIR problem. Either that or we are trying to make our problem their problem.

Keywords: [“problem”,”tell”,”Government”]
Source: https://www.unexplained-mysteries.com/forum/topic/94632-ufo…

Religion as a Major Institution in the Emergence and Expansion of Modern Capitalism. From Protestant Political Doctrines to Enlightened Reform

Religion as a Major Institution in the Emergence and Expansion of Modern Capitalism. Starting with the Reformation, as a social and religious mass movement, the institution of the “State” became synonymous with authority, and until the Enlightenment, the mundane absolute order deployed varied patterns. Beginning with Calvinism, which legitimized the expansion of state institutions, the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries marked a shift to modernization. Puritan authoritarianism, based on “Saintly” discipline and on quasi-marginal freedom, developed a new, impersonal and voluntary political doctrine. While one generally associates Anglo-American Puritanism with political freedom, democracy or capitalism, we argue for a very different perspective, namely that the Puritans were both partisans of a medievalist paradigm as well as genuine enemies of democratic, liberal and secular values. We emphasize that the Anglo-American radical Puritanism was only tempered by the Enlightenment. The enlightened philosophes were the defense advocates of liberal and pluralist ideas, and came out victorious of the competiton of ideas with their Puritan rivals. Full Text: PDF Refbacks There are currently no refbacks. The authors assume all responsibility for the ideas expressed in the materials published.

Keywords: [“Institution”,”ideas”,”Puritan”]
Source: http://jsri.ro/ojs/index.php/jsri/article/view/794

A force for good: how enlightened finance can restore , find helpful customer reviews and review ratings for a force for good: how enlightened finance can restore faith in capitalism at amazoncom read honest and unbiased. How enlightened finance can restore faith in capitalism: q , by the rbc wealthvoice team in his new book, a force for good, john taft, ceo of rbc wealth management us, invited more than 20 respected financial minds. A force for good: how enlightened finance can restore , a force for good: how enlightened finance can restore faith in capitalism ebook: john g taft: amazoncomau: kindle store. A force for good corporate knights, at first glance, i was put off by the title of john tafts new book, a force for good: how enlightened finance can restore faith in capitalism. A force for good: how enlightened finance can restore , a force for good: how enlightened finance can restore faith in capitalism: amazonca: john g taft: books. Podcast: how enlightened finance can restore faith in , john taft a force for good, how enlightened finance can restore faith in capitalism. History of capitalist theory wikipedia, a theory of capitalism describes the essential features on the role of enlightened self 19th century with the expansion of corporations and finance,.

Keywords: [“enlightened”,”finance”,”how”]
Source: http://www.lindaesterleydesigns.com/f/g/…enlightened-finance-capitalism.pdf

Laissez Faire Capitalism

“Laissez Faire” is French for “Leave alone” which means that the government leaves the people alone regarding all economic activities. There are two ways that a government typically is tempted to interfere with the economy. The first is through the initiation of force, and the second is through socialized industries. Neither of these activities are aligned with the proper role of government, and are both unacceptable. “Laissez Faire Capitalism” is actually redundant, due to the nature of Capitalism. Simply “Capitalism” is sufficient to get the point across although historically it has been misrepresented as compatible with government economic interference.

Keywords: [“government”,”Capitalism”,”Leave”]
Source: http://www.importanceofphilosophy.com/Politics_LaissezFaire.html

Capitalism and the Free Market: Definition & Limitations

Study.com video lessons have helped over half a million teachers engage their students. “The videos have changed the way I teach! The videos on Study.com accomplish in 5 minutes what would take me an entire class.” Chris F. Did you know…. Students in online learning conditions performed better than those receiving face-to-face instruction.

Keywords: [“video”,”students”,”Study.com”]
Source: https://study.com/academy/lesson/capitalism-and-the-free-market.html

Age of Enlightenment by Julia White on Prezi

Present RemotelyInvited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present. People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi accountThis link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation. Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article.

Keywords: [“Present”,”presentation”]
Source: https://prezi.com/mueaxcomexv_/age-of-enlightenment

Part 1: Fernando Zobel de Ayala keynote on Enlightened Capitalism

Ph This was the speech of Fernando Zobel de Ayala before nearly 2,700 delegates at the 2009 Philippine Ad Congress. He spoke at length about sustainability and the need for the global business community to adopt a new kind of enlightened capitalism.

Keywords: []
Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=thv5xW0erbk

JR Test Site News for 01-26-2018


Smith was the Scottish philosopher who became famous for his book, “The Wealth of Nations” written in 1776, which had a profound influence on modern economics and concepts of individual freedom. In 1751, Smith was appointed professor of logic at Glasgow university, transferring in 1752 to the chair of moral philosophy. Smith moved to London in 1776, where he published An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, which examined in detail the consequences of economic freedom. “Wealth of Nations” established economics as an autonomous subject and launched the economic doctrine of free enterprise. Smith laid the intellectual framework that explained the free market and still holds true today. To underscore his laissez-faire convictions, Smith argued that state and personal efforts, to promote social good are ineffectual compared to unbridled market forces. At the end it was discovered that Smith had devoted a considerable part of his income to numerous secret acts of charity. The Wealth of Nations, first published in 1776, is Smith’s classic treaties on economic liberalism. Purchase this hardcover edition of Essential Adam Smith. The United States founding fathers, particularly Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and Benjamin Franklin, turned to the ideas of Adam Smith to create an economic system for America with both immediate and long-sustained results. Purchase this hardcover edition of Adam Smith and the Origins of American Enterprise. A great little primer on Adam Smith’s philosophy and thinking for students of Smith or basic ecomomics.

Keywords: [“Smith”,”Nations”,”Wealth”]
Source: http://www.lucidcafe.com/library/96jun/smith.html

Download] ebooks a force for good how enlightened finance…capitalism pdf A FORCE FOR GOOD HOW ENLIGHTENED FINANCE…CAPITALISM A force for good how enlightened finance…capitalism – , etc. How To Download A Force For Good How Enlightened Finance…capitalism For Free? ca pi ta lis m No wonder you activities are, reading will be always needed. Reading a force for good how enlightened finance…capitalism is also a way as one of the collective books that gives many advantages. Fin an ce … If you really want to know the ways of getting this book, you can follow to read this sales letter. In this case, a force for good how enlightened finance…capitalism is one of the products that we present. There are still lots of books from many countries, hundreds of authors with remarkable tiles. En lig ht en ed We present the book is based on the reasons that will influence you to live better. Even you have already the reading book; you can also enrich the knowledge by getting them form a force for good how enlightened finance…capitalism. A fo rc ef or go od ho w Many people may have different reason to read some books. What kind of reason of you to read this remarkable a force for good how enlightened finance…capitalism? It will depend on how you stare and think about it. Just get this book now and be one of the amazing readers of this book. A force for good how enlightened finance…capitalism ebooks Page : 1 ..

Keywords: [“how”,”book”,”finance…capitalism”]
Source: http://vidno.de/…/a_force_for_good_how_enlightened_finance…capitalism.pdf

How did the Reformation Contribute to the Shaping of the Modern World

Like the Renaissance, the Reformation drew its inspiration from the ancient world. Renaissance humanists and artists sought to imitate and revive classical art and literary forms; Reformation thinkers aspired to restore the spiritual purity of early Christianity, before the growth of a powerful clergy and a dogmatic theology. They used the Gospels in order to undermine the authority of the Church. By dividing Christendom into Catholic and Protestant, the Reformation destroyed the religious unity of Europe. The distinguishing feature of the Middle Ages, and weakened the Church, the chief institution of medieval society. By strengthening monarchs at the expense of church bodies, the Reformation furthered the growth of the modern secular and centralized state. While absolute monarchy was the immediate beneficiary of the Reformation, indirectly Protestantism contributed to the growth of political liberty another feature of the modern West. Protestantism accomplished this by providing religious justification for revolution against tyrannical rule. There was a spiritual equality of all believers: all were equally Christian; all were equally priests. The Reformation contributed to the creation of an individualistic ethic. Piety was not determined by the Church, but by the autonomous individual, whose conscience, illuminated by God, was the source of judgment and authority. The Reformations stress on individual conscience may have contributed to the development of the capitalist spirit, which underlies modern economic life.

Keywords: [“Reformation”,”Church”,”spiritual”]
Source: http://personal-pages.lvc.edu/robbins/ReformationandModernity.htm


JOHN LOCKE. John Locke was one of the most important and influential philosophers ever. John Locke was born in 1632 into a well-to-do Somerset family. In 1666, John Locke met Anthony Ashley Cooper Locke treated Shaftesbury for an abscess in the liver, joined his household, and the two men became good friends. In 1667, John Locke wrote an Essay On Toleration in which he argued that Protestant Dissenters who objected to some aspects of Anglican worship should have full civil rights. Charles II agreed with Shaftesbury and Locke on the advantages of tolerating Protestant Dissent, but he was also wiling to excuse the Roman Catholic sympathies of his brother, James. The Whigs failed to prevent James’ accession, and first Shaftesbury and then Locke were forced to flee to the Netherlands. Locke devoted much of his time to writing on philosophy and political thought. John Locke rejected Filmer’s equation of paternal and political power. In their natural state, Locke insisted, all adults were equal; each individual was subject to no one but God. The Glorious Revolution was welcomed in England, and John Locke’s Two Treatises were frequently reprinted. Locke extended certain general rights of property to all people, although property in land and other major assets was restricted to a minority. Locke did not believe that the state should redistribute property to the poor.

Keywords: [“Locke”,”property”,”people”]
Source: https://faculty.history.wisc.edu/sommerville/367/john_locke.htm

JR Test Site News for 01-26-2018

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Keywords: [“Force”,”Finance”,”Good”]
Source: http://www.owenhill.org/force/force_good_enlightened_finance_capitalism.pdf

The Decline Of American Capitalism Lewis corey: the decline of american capitalism, unemployed united states, communism. Amazonfr the decline of american capitalism professor , millions must accept charity, whether direct or in the form of relief work the mobilization of government to war upon depression aroused hopes which were meagrely realized a nother and more fundamental aspect of the crisis involves the decline of american capitalism it is a crisis of the economic order itself. The decline of american capitalism great depression , fromthe collection of the 7 m i pretinger a uibrary p san francisco, california 2006. The decline of american capitalism: lewis corey , the decline of american capitalism on amazoncom *free* shipping on qualifying offers louis corey was born louis c fraina and was a. The decline of american capitalism great , the decline of american capitalism ebook download as pdf file, text file or read book online. The decline of american capitalism download ebook pdf/epub, the decline of american capitalism download the decline of american capitalism or read online here in pdf or epub please click button to get the decline of american capitalism book now all books are in clear copy here, and all files are secure so don’t worry about it. The sad decline of the word “Capitalism” forbes, if “Capitalism” is i am also the president and founder of the hispanic american center of the sad decline of the word “capitalism. The revolutionary implications of the decline of american , the revolutionary implications of the decline of american capitalism by barry grey 13 october 2008 wsws national editor barry grey delivered the following.

Keywords: [“Capitalism”,”Decline”,”American”]
Source: http://www.owenhill.org/the/the_decline_of_american_capitalism.pdf

Adam Smith’s Laissez-Faire Policies

‘s belief that competition, the market’s invisible hand, would lead to proper pricing played a large role in his economic policy recommendations. Trade restrictions, minimum wage laws, and product regulation were all viewed as detrimental to a nation’s economic health. This laissez-faire policy of government non-intervention remained popular throughout the Victorian Era and still plays an important part in present-day economic policy. Capitalists, in particular, supported Smith’s policies and often twisted his words to justify mistreatment of workers. They suggested that child labor laws, maximum working hours, and factory health codes constituted a violation of their rights and Smith’s golden rule. Similar attempts by factory owners to use Smith’s teaching in order to further their own ends continued well into the twentieth century. Contrary to popular belief Smith was not an apologist for the capitalist class. For this reason Smith firmly favored anti-monopoly laws. His support of competition remained contingent on the fact that it encouraged economic growth, something Smith felt would benefit all members of society. He failed to consider that the process of urbanization wouldreak havoc on the labor market, and his optimism about growth seemingly ignored the possibility that capitalists might disproportionately consume the benefits of expansion. The inability of growth to substantially increase general living conditions became the primary concern of Smith’s intellectual descendants. Economics, which started with Smith’s guarded optimism, quickly became known as “The dismal science”.

Keywords: [“Smith”,”economic”,”policy”]
Source: http://www.victorianweb.org/economics/laissez.html

Karl Marx History Economic Ideas Summary ~ ECONOMIC THEORIES

The career of Karl Marx-an economist, but also a philosopher, sociologist, prophet, and revolutionist-is proof of the importance of eco­nomic ideas. It remains important for us to examine the ideas of such a singularly influential man as Karl Marx. In contrast to the classical economists Marx advocated a fundamental revolution in the society and economy, not small, marginal changes. Because Marx is popularly associated with the economic systems of socialism and communism, people often assume that he wrote about these systems. Marx studied what he called capitalism-his major work is titled Das Kapital, or Capital. In all the vast literature produced by Marx and his collaborator, Friedrich Engels, there is little reference to how a socialist or communist economy is to be organized, other than a short list of items charac­terizing the nature of communism that appeared in The Communist Manifesto. Marx’s economic theory is an application of his theory of history to the capitalist economy. Whereas other classical economists focused on the static equilibrium of the economy, Marx focused on the dynamic process of change. In discussing growth, Marx emphasized the deterministic role of technology and increasing returns. Born into a Jewish family that turned to Christianity, the young Marx began studying law but soon became interested in philosophy. After receiving his doctorate in philosophy, Marx was unable to find an academic appointment because of his radical views, so he turned to journalism. Marx had tremendous intellec­tual powers coupled with a strong drive to read and study.

Keywords: [“Marx”,”economic”,”economy”]
Source: http://www.economictheories.org/2008/07/karl-marx-history-economic-ideas.html

JR Test Site News for 01-26-2018

Liberalism, Socialism, and Democracy

What follows is less a rejoinder than a brief for social democracy, as a tradition that loathed communism and may yet enrich liberalism. Like liberalism, social democracy belongs to the tradition of a limited state based on political rights and civil and social liberties; it has no sympathy for either command planning or command politics. Social democracy does go somewhat beyond liberalism as generally understood. Social democracy is not merely a prodigal mutant of liberalism, now free of its youthful socialist indiscretions. My point is that liberalism, which today has reverted to one of its conservative moods, is strengthened and not weakened when it learns from social democracy. Admittedly, American liberalism and European social democracy are under assault from similar forces. In Europe, the question of how to revive a social market economy – the euphemism of choice for social democracy – in the face of transnational private commerce is a center-stage public debate. Another concept central to social democracy and almost entirely marginal to American liberalism is the idea of “Social solidarity.” In the development of the social democratic compromise, two things became clear early on. Social democracy is a good antidote to liberal fragmentation. While Mill can be revered as a buried treasure of democratic liberal theory, the evolution of modern liberalism and social democracy did not proceed mainly via Mill, but via Roosevelt and Reuther, Keynes and Attlee, Palme, Brandt, Mitterrand, et al, with a strong assist from the labor movement. As for Dewey, just as there is no Manichean wall between liberalism and social democracy, we cannot fairly divide Dewey into the educational prophet whom we admire and the soft-headed philosopher who was naive about socialism. In the postwar era, social democracy pulled back even further from its socialist ancestry and became more clearly allied with the liberal tradition.

Keywords: [“social”,”liberalism”,”liberal”]
Source: http://prospect.org/article/liberalism-socialism-and-democracy

FC101: The Rise of the Modern State in Enlightenment Europe

Despite their vast differences, there was a general trend in both Eastern and Western Europe toward more tightly run bureaucratic states. In order to understand the evolution of the modern state, one needs to understand that the feudal state was patrimonial. The modern concept of kings and officials who were accountable for their actions and responsible for the welfare of their subjects was alien to the old feudal state. The feedback between the rise of towns and kings produced two lines of development that would help each other in the rise of the modern state. Second, kings were building strong nation-states that, by the 1600’s, were assuming greater control over all aspects of the state. In spite of this, the centralized states emerging in the Enlightenment were important in the evolution of our own modern states in two ways. First of all, the emergence of a professional bureaucracy, chosen largely for merit, not money or birth, provided the state with a modern administrative structure that continues today. Second, the idea of the rulers and officials being servants, not owners, of the state was central to the revolutionary ideas that swept Europe starting with the French Revolution in 1789. Another problem for the central government was the intense competition between the council of state and the various ministers. In 1748, after the disasters of the War of the Austrian Succession, the estates recognized the need to reform the state and granted ten years worth of taxes to the central government. Through a combination of incentives for families who sent their sons to school and punishments for those who did not, Austria under Joseph had a higher percentage of children in school than any other state in Europe. At the center of this was Frederick II himself, whose incredible energy, drive, and intelligence were more than equal to what all the ministers and rulers of any other state in Europe were capable of.

Keywords: [“state”,”government”,”more”]
Source: http://www.flowofhistory.com/units/west/15/FC101

The Golden Age And The End Of The World

A quick glance at close up pictures of the red planet reveal that it has been hit many, many times in its past. As our book ‘A Monument to the End of Time: Alchemy, Fulcanelli and the Great Cross’ reveals, our ancient ancestors had a much more sophisticated view of the stars and planets than they have ever been given credit. Starting in 1992 and ending in 2012, this event, that we are all currently living through, is nothing less than the end of time, and the world. We proved in the book that all of the western, and many eastern, traditions are deeply concerned with our present time period. Even Nostredamus spoke about this time as the most important time period of all. The forces of Set were nearly successful the last time a catastrophe hit our planet some 13,000 years ago. Why, we wondered, would they spend so much time trying to reinvigorate the many sacred sites around the world? It was one thing to attempt to re-educate the refugees and to teach them how to care for themselves and each other. Why spend your time and effort on re-invigorating ancient beliefs that certain parts of the planet held a spiritual power? It didn’t make any sense. They still spoke of the ‘end times’ and Satan as the ruler of the world. We wondered how anyone could have been able to predict the future in the way that John boldly tries? As our book points out the Cross at Hendaye is predicting that the end of the world will begin on the autumn equinox 2002 and end on the winter solstice 2012, a little over 10 years later. Only they will understand the final message of the end of time and prepare themselves for it. This could possibly be the same star as the Hopi suggest will appear before the end of time.

Keywords: [“Time”,”book”,”planet”]
Source: http://rense.com/general8/ev.htm

JR Test Site News for 01-26-2018


Take our friends the du Ponts, the powder people – didn’t one of them testify before a Senate committee recently that their powder won the war? Or saved the world for democracy? Or something? How did they do in the war? They were a patriotic corporation. The General Chemical Company averaged a profit for the three years before the war of a little over $800,000 a year. American Sugar Refining Company averaged $2,000,000 a year for the three years before the war. The Administration names a committee – with the War and Navy Departments ably represented under the chairmanship of a Wall Street speculator – to limit profits in war time. After the Civil War no new medals were issued until the Spanish-American War.In the World War, we used propaganda to make the boys accept conscription. So capital won’t permit the taking of the profit out of war until the people – those who do the suffering and still pay the price – make up their minds that those they elect to office shall do their bidding, and not that of the profiteers. Another step necessary in this fight to smash the war racket is the limited plebiscite to determine whether a war should be declared. There wouldn’t be very much sense in having a 76-year-old president of a munitions factory or the flat-footed head of an international banking firm or the cross-eyed manager of a uniform manufacturing plant – all of whom see visions of tremendous profits in the event of war – voting on whether the nation should go to war or not. To summarize: Three steps must be taken to smash the war racket. Looking back, Woodrow Wilson was re-elected president in 1916 on a platform that he had “Kept us out of war” and on the implied promise that he would “Keep us out of war.” Yet, five months later he asked Congress to declare war on Germany. Had secrecy been outlawed as far as war negotiations were concerned, and had the press been invited to be present at that conference, or had radio been available to broadcast the proceedings, America never would have entered the World War. Very little has been accomplished to assure us that the World War was really the war to end all wars.

Keywords: [“War”,”profit”,”year”]
Source: http://www.lexrex.com/enlightened/articles/warisaracket.htm

Invisible Hand

The term “Invisible hand” is a metaphor for how, in a free market economy, self-interested individuals operate through a system of mutual interdependence to promote the general benefit of society at large. BREAKING DOWN ‘Invisible Hand’ There are two critical ideas behind the invisible hand. First, voluntary trades in a free market produce unintentional and widespread benefits. Each free exchange creates signals about which goods and services are valuable and how difficult they are to bring to market. “Every individual necessarily labors to render the annual revenue of the society as great as he can … He intends only his own gain, and he is in this, as in many other cases, led by an invisible hand to promote an end which was no part of his intention … By pursuing his own interests, he frequently promotes that of the society more effectually than when he really intends to promote it. I have never known much good done by those who affected to trade for the public good.” Smith only mentioned the invisible hand three times and just once in “The Wealth of Nations,” leaving a rather nebulous concept. Later economists better explained Smith’s invisible hand, especially F.A. Hayek’s “Spontaneous order” and Joseph Schumpeter’s “Creative destruction.” This is well-demonstrated through a famous example in Richard Cantillon’s “An Essay on Economic Theory”, the book from which Smith developed his invisible hand concept. The successful farmers introduced better equipment and techniques, and brought to market only those goods for which consumers were willing to pay. Smith’s invisible hand became one of the primary justifications for an economic system of free market capitalism. Even government rules sometimes try to incorporate the invisible hand. Former Fed Chairman Ben Bernanke explained the “Market-based approach is regulation by the invisible hand” which “Aims to align the incentives of market participants with the objectives of the regulator.”

Keywords: [“Invisible”,”hand”,”market”]
Source: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/i/invisiblehand.asp

The Catholic work ethic

Like all Lutherans, each Sunday I was further enlightened about Catholic wickedness and about how Martin Luther had set us free to think for ourselves and to seek knowledge, thereby bringing about the modern world. Although I had outgrown much of this by the time I entered graduate school, once there I was instructed in depth and detail in the gospel of Max Weber: that Protestantism gave birth to a unique work ethic that spawned capitalism, and thus it is that modernity is a direct result of the Reformation. Even now, Weber’s thesis of the “Protestant work ethic” lives on among sociologists, being recounted in detail in every introductory textbook on the market. According to Weber, Protestants dominated the capitalist economy of the West because of all the world’s religions only Protestantism provided a moral vision that led people to restrain their material consumption while vigorously seeking wealth. Weber argued that prior to the Reformation restraint on consumption was invariably linked to asceticism and to condemnations of commerce. Conversely, the pursuit of wealth was linked to profligate consumption. Weber claimed that the Protestant ethic shattered these traditional linkages, creating a culture of frugal entrepreneurs content to systematically reinvest profits in order to pursue ever greater wealth; and therein lies the key to capitalism and the path to modernity. As a great deal of subsequent research has demonstrated, Catholic areas of western Europe did not lag in their industrial development. Fully developed capitalism had appeared in Europe many centuries before the Reformation. Everyone writing on capitalism accepts that it rests upon free markets, secure property rights and free labour. By this definition, capitalism was a very Catholic invention: it first appeared in the great Catholic monastic estates, way back in the 9th century. The Catholic Herald is your essential weekly guide to the Catholic world; latest news, incisive opinion, expert analysis and spiritual reflection.

Keywords: [“Catholic”,”capitalism”,”Weber”]
Source: http://www.catholicherald.co.uk/magazine-post/the-catholic-work-ethic

JR Test Site News for 01-26-2018

Can a good government embrace both capitalism and socialism?

Capitalism and socialism have been blended together in differing amounts around the globe throughout the 20th century. What brought the two together in the first place? Pure capitalism emerged from the Age of Enlightenment’s revolutionary attitude toward personal liberty, individualism and a decrease in governmental meddling. With the onset of the Industrial Revolution, people started to realize something. Once capitalists saw how much dough they could rake in at the expense of their workers, and with those workers having very little say in the matter, it became clear that a little compromise could be helpful. So in the United States, as an example, the federal government started to rejoin the game and control the economy more closely. The push grew even stronger between 1900 and 1920, and some of the major agencies that were created to this effect include the Food and Drug Administration, the Interstate Commerce Commission and the Federal Trade Commission. Workers starting to raise a ruckus about low wages? Smack down: minimum-wage requirements and the expansion of labor unions in industries like steel and auto manufacturing. Federal agencies and programs from this decade include the Securities and Exchange Commission, the Federal Deposit Insurance Commission and the Social Security program. Eventually, enthusiasts of capitalism and proponents of industry started complaining about what they saw as a tarnished economic system – capitalism imbued with too much socialism. Social Security was in place, for example, and people were increasingly dependent on programs run by the Department of Health and Human Services, the Department of Housing and Urban Development, the Department of Labor, the Department of Agriculture and the Department of Education, among others. Ultimately, this article poses a difficult question to answer, because it also leads to another question: What constitutes a “Good” government? If you feel positively about your government – like the 46 percent of Americans who reported feeling that way in a 2010 Gallup poll – then the answer is yes, government can embrace both capitalism and socialism. If you’d like to see the situation swing a little further toward socialism or capitalism, then perhaps the answer is no.

Keywords: [“Capitalism”,”Department”,”work”]
Source: https://people.howstuffworks.com/capitalism-socialism.htm

Capitalism 2.0: The Need For Regulation

Never have I spent so much of my thinking energy on trying to understand, question, assess, debug, and dissect a value system that I had, for years, accepted as a fundamental principle of my life. This series, I hope, will provide a forum for many of us experiencing the same period of questioning, an opportunity to discuss. “Capitalism is a social system based on the recognition of individual rights, including property rights, in which all property is privately owned.” “The recognition of individual rights entails the banishment of physical force from human relationships: basically, rights can be violated only by means of force. In a capitalist society, no man or group may initiate the use of physical force against others. The only function of the government, in such a society, is the task of protecting man’s rights, i.e., the task of protecting him from physical force; the government acts as the agent of man’s right of self-defense, and may use force only in retaliation and only against those who initiate its use; thus the government is the means of placing the retaliatory use of force under objective control.” Today’ we’re seeing the government take a role well beyond this rather simplistic definition, and we’re even discovering that some of it is desirable. Rand also goes on to say, “When I say”capitalism,” I mean a full, pure, uncontrolled, unregulated laissez-faire capitalism-with a separation of state and economics, in the same way and for the same reasons as the separation of state and church. Regulation, clearly, has become necessary, to control one of the basic forces of human nature: greed, especially that greed which is unconstrained by ethics. My personal analysis suggests that while in Rand’s definition, greed is good, and a part of the capitalistic equation, she missed one of the essential ‘bugs’ in the system: lack of conscience in human beings. Greed that is coupled with a strong ethical value system – a moral code – is the ideal. Unconstrained by morality, is the ‘bug’ that requires checks and balances in the system. It is quite obvious, today, that it needs to come in.

Keywords: [“force”,”right”,”system”]
Source: http://www.sramanamitra.com/2009/03/28/capitalism-20-the-need-for-regulation

Bad capitalism got us into our current economic mess – good capitalism, which recognises social and public values, will get us out. Ed Miliband has been careful to dub this a crisis of a particular kind of capitalism, and his solution is more subtle: to build an argument – and the beginnings of a coalition – making the case for a different kind of capitalism. In the run-up to 2008, the social and public values that are paradoxically essential to a strong capitalism, were systematically torched. 12 Will Hutton Capitalism has twin roots – in the individualistic Protestantism of the Reformation but also the assertion of the public realm in the Enlightenment. The re-legitimisation of capitalism requires more balanced and long-term decision-making on behalf of all its stakeholders, which in turn implies capping the power of finance and giving employees more voice. Good capitalism Good capitalism rests on two interrelated building blocks: fairness understood as receiving one’s proportional deserts for the contribution that has been made; and the codependence of public and private, individual and society. Good capitalism is founded on an acknowledgement of interdependency and an acceptance of due desert. Good capitalism is indissolubly linked to good ownership – the recognition that owners have obligations along with the right to direct property autonomously. An enterprising, enabling state has watchfully to nudge, cajole, regulate, legislate and build the ecosystems in which good capitalism and the social contract can flourish. The creation of good capitalism is thus quintessentially an Enlightenment project. What creates a great and dynamic capitalism is the interplay between risk-taking entrepreneurs and companies, and a smart state creating the structures and processes that relieve them of risks that would otherwise crush them. Conclusion These goals – a responsible good capitalism; a twenty first century social contract; the creation of an open innovation ecosystem along with a commitment to science; the reinvention of the state as smart and enabling; and a reconceptualisation of economic policy – must be at the heart of the left’s agenda in power.

Keywords: [“capitalism”,”public”,”business”]
Source: http://www.fabians.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2012/09/Enlightenment-Labour.pdf

JR Test Site News for 01-26-2018

Key to change: An enlightened elite

Elites will always be the source of widespread change in society, good or bad. The masses instinctively take their cues from the Elite or members of the Elite. A significant majority of the Elites of a given society must be enlightened and capable of critical reasoning for that Elite to espouse effective positive change in society. These are all members of the Elite, yet they are not enlightened. Western Europe of the 1700’s was becoming “Considerably enlightened,” despite the numerous members of the masses who were ignorant, because “Enlightenment” merely suggested that at least a majority of the Elite be enlightened. Until the vast majority of the Philippine Elite are capable of discussing issues rationally in a calm, cold, detached, critically objective, and scientific manner, as opposed to discussions based on fervently-held fanatical beliefs and religio-ideological convictions, the Elite will be considered far from being enlightened. If the majority of the Elite is far from being enlightened, then the future of the society it heads cannot be said to be headed in a positive direction. Enlighten the Elites first, then once a majority of the Elites are enlightened, the policies these enlightened Elites will pursue within society will likewise be enlightened. These new entrants to the enlightened Elite will further swell the ranks of the enlightened Elite and will work more towards the further upliftment of the rest of society, especially the masses. This is a corollary to point number 4, since as mentioned, the worst enemies of the enlightened Elite are not the unenlightened Elite nor even the unenlightened masses, but rather, the pseudo-enlightened sector of the Elite. To reiterate what was mentioned in point number 3, having a divided Elite where the enlightened Elites form a small minority and the rest of the unenlightened and pseudo-enlightened Elite is factionalized into so many splinter-groups that are antagonistic to one another presents more problems than having a “Rich-poor” or “Elite-masses” divide. Whereas in point number 6, it is possible for members of the masses to become new entrants into the intellectual Elite, in the Philippines, a number of them were not truly enlightened. The development of society, particularly the history of the First World, is founded on allowing the Elite group to grow and expand by creating opportunities for members of the masses to improve themselves and become new members of the Elite.

Keywords: [“Elite”,”enlightened”,”society”]
Source: http://getrealphilippines.com/legacy/3-00_Makati/enlighten1.html

Coffee and the Enlightenment – Stephen Hicks, Ph.D.

“The impact of the introduction of coffee into Europe during the seventeenth century was particularly noticeable since the most common beverages of the time, even at breakfast, were weak ‘small beer’ and wine. Those who drank coffee instead of alcohol began the day alert and stimulated, rather than relaxed and mildly inebriated, and the quality and quantity of their work improved. Western Europe began to emerge from an alcoholic haze that had lasted for centuries.” As a contributing factor, coffee certainly gets credit on physiological grounds. Also contributing was the development of European coffee house culture, the coffee houses bringing businessmen, artists, and scientists together for drinking and socializing. The great Lloyd’s of London company had its beginning in Edward Lloyd’s Coffee House in London, which dates from 1685 or 1688, the year of England’s Glorious Revolution and John Locke’s return from exile in Holland. As the Turks had both coffee and coffee houses at least a century earlier, coffee is at most a contributing factor. It is thanks to the Turks’ militaristic and imperial ambitions that Europe got its first coffee house. As the inscription on a coffee cup at my office says: Given enough coffee, I could rule the world. Led by Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman empire was expanding westward into Europe until halted at Vienna in 1529. “Vienna was invaded by the Turkish army, who left many bags of coffee behind when they fled the city. Franz Georg Kolschitzky claimed the coffee as the spoils of war, and opened a coffee house. Apparently, he had lived in Turkey and was the only person who recognized the value in the beans. He introduced the idea of filtering coffee, as well as the softening the brew with milk and sugar. The beverage was quite a hit.” Coffee and coffee houses then spread rapidly across Europe. So let us give thanks to Suleiman of the Magnificent Headwear for the coffee and to Herr Kolschitzky for spotting the entrepreneurial opportunity. I quote from The Women’s Petition Against Coffee of 1674: “Coffee leads men to trifle away their time, scald their chops, and spend their money, all for a little base, black, thick, nasty, bitter, stinking nauseous puddle water.”

Keywords: [“coffee”,”house”,”Europe”]
Source: http://www.stephenhicks.org/2010/01/18/coffee-and-the-enlightenment

Karma Capitalism

The swami’s whirlwind East Coast tour was just one small manifestation of a significant but sometimes quirky new trend: Big Business is embracing Indian philosophy. Top business schools have introduced “Self-mastery” classes that use Indian methods to help managers boost their leadership skills and find inner peace in lives dominated by work. About 10% of the professors at places such as Harvard Business School, Northwestern’s Kellogg School of Business, and the University of Michigan’s Ross School of Business are of Indian descent-a far higher percentage than other ethnic groups. The seemingly ethereal world view that’s reflected in Indian philosophy is surprisingly well attuned to the down-to-earth needs of companies trying to survive in an increasingly global, interconnected business ecosystem. Harvard Business School associate professor Rakesh Khurana, who achieved acclaim with a treatise on how corporations have gone wrong chasing charismatic CEOs, is writing a book on how U.S. business schools have gotten away from their original social charters. Vijay Govindarajan, a professor at Dartmouth College’s Tuck School of Business whose books and consulting for the likes of Chevron and Deere & Co. have made him a sought-after innovation guru, links his theories directly to Hindu philosophy. Kellogg’s Jain, who is working on a book about the customer-centric business models of Indian companies, believes that many Indian thinkers are drawn to fields stressing interconnectedness for good reason. While companies such as Tata Group or Wipro Technologies have generous initiatives for India’s poor, the country has its share of unethical business practices and social injustices. Some Indian academics bristle at the suggestion that their background makes their approach to business any different. At the time he died, the prolific London Business School professor was working on a book to be called A Good Theory of Management. As Ghoshal saw it, the corporate debacles of a few years ago were the inevitable outgrowth of theories developed by economists and absorbed at business schools. Khurana’s forthcoming book, From Higher Aims to Hired Hands, looks at the professional responsibility to society that managers and the business schools who train them were initially designed to have.

Keywords: [“business”,”Indian”,”school”]
Source: https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2006-10-29/karma-capitalism

JR Test Site News for 01-26-2018

Point-Counterpoint: Philanthrocapitalism

As a recent Wall Street Journal article suggests, the same factors that helped create the billionaires may have also exacerbated social injustice and inequality, malnutrition, and disempowerment for millions of poor people cross India. At the same time, much to my relief, citizen-led social justice movements around the globe, many funded by social change philanthropies, are emerging to challenge the substance, form, and direction of philanthrocapitalism as well as the current, largely unequal systems of trade and global capitalism. Critics of philanthrocapitalism are not really against the use of those funds for the social good, as much as they are opposed to the policymaking and agenda-setting powers that tend to accompany this new global elite. Where is the evidence that philanthrocapitalism works, and are there better ways to achieve urgently needed global social progress? As our world grows ever more interdependent-a fact that global climate change is making clear-communities and social movements across the world are seriously questioning the assumptions that underlie this new version of the “White man’s burden.” The nuance and inherent humility of the social sciences-the realization that development has to do with people, with human and social complexity, with cultural and traditional realities, and their willingness to struggle with the messy and multifaceted aspects of a problem-have no cachet in this metrics-driven, efficiency-seeking, technology-focused approach to social change. Finally, Ramdas thinks that there is philanthropy that tackles the symptoms of poverty, which is bad, and “Social change” philanthropy that tackles the root causes of poverty, which is good. Is the world really that simple? Even if it is, is Ramdas arguing that the poor should be left to watch patiently as their children die of preventable diseases like polio and malaria, while they wait for social change? Hedge fund legend George Soros has been backing social change movements for decades, in the United States and overseas, courting controversy all the way. 3) Let’s talk more about how businesses add or subtract to social value-not through PR-driven corporate social responsibility projects, but through their core business activities. How do we measure this social value, and how do we engage citizens to vote with their wallets-not just as consumers, but as investors, using their savings and investments to promote better business?4) We still need to talk about nonprofit performance and impact. We are excited that the Internet and social media can engage and mobilize “Mass philanthrocapitalism” from ordinary donors.

Keywords: [“social”,”world”,”change”]
Source: https://ssir.org/point_counterpoint/philanthrocapitalism

The ChesterBelloc Mandate: Distributism Vs. Laissez-faire Capitalism

If we really would like to see the full results of totally “Free individuals” working out their own economic activities the least encumbered by law and “Economic controls,” or morality, we need only look at the frequent example of African regimes. Again, if the present day wage earner has time to be with his family, and not working 14 hours a day as he did at one time, it is not due solely to the benevolence of factory owners. Workers do not go about carefree while the benevolent paternal capitalist owner takes all as his own concern. Why should one man make 5 million dollars a year and another working in the same industry be making 15 dollars an hour? If all are involved in the work why should there be such disparity? Co-operatives would be a better solution in general. The governing body in a community is less of “An external body” to the people than is the employer to individual worker and his family. The Communists called this high wage effect a “Labor aristocracy.” It doesn’t change the status of the worker, it only means that there is, for the moment, a worker who is paid less than himself in China. Then where will the worker shop? The wealthy are becoming phenomenally wealthy, but I am not convinced that the working people in general are getting ahead, regardless of the new car in the garage. So “Unnecessary” are the constructs of the modern economy that it required riots and deaths to obtain a normal working day. The Capitalist economic bosses had no problems in the 1930’s working with the Bolsheviks. Six corporate boards controlling all main stream communications media! For Marx the original goal was to simply allow this natural progression and when all was in the hands of a few to take it from them by the force of the many, the famous “Proletariat.” Proletariat was the pejorative term to indicate those who own no productive property, their only “Capital” is their labor to be hired out for hourly wages, and, of course, to produce “Proles” – future workers. What is to be maximized in society is the ability for a man to work productively and not simply to be reduced to a wage-earner, a cog in some multi-national conglomerate, so huge that it makes “Everything.” This was the economic basis for the corporate guilds in the middle ages. These institutions worked for the collective interest of the trade, the division of labor that it entailed, facilitated the relations between the employer and the employee, and oversaw the education/formation necessary for its craft.

Keywords: [“work”,”community”,”own”]
Source: http://distributist.blogspot.com/2008/11/distributism-vs-laissez-faire.html

JR Test Site News for 01-26-2018

16.18MB FREE [DOWNLOAD] the humane economy populism capitalism and democracy PDF Ful By Chiquita Newton Did you looking for the humane economy populism capitalism and democracy PDF Full Ebook? This is the best area to right of entry the humane economy populism capitalism and democracy PDF Full Ebook PDF File Size 16.18 MB previously help or repair your product, and we hope it can be definite perfectly. Tags: the humane economy populism capitalism and democracy PDF Full Ebook doc download Buy the humane economy populism capitalism and democracy PDF Full Ebook android the humane economy populism capitalism and democracy PDF Full Ebook epub download download the humane economy populism capitalism and democracy PDF Full Ebook in ePub the humane economy populism capitalism and democracy PDF Full Ebook azw download the humane economy populism capitalism and democracy PDF Full Ebook epub download PDF format the humane economy populism capitalism and democracy PDF Full Ebook Pdf Format the humane economy populism capitalism and democracy PDF Full Ebook read online the humane economy populism capitalism and democracy PDF Full Ebook. Harvard Business Review; The Humane Economy Paperback Edition – WaynePacelle.org “The Humane Economy is a brilliant book that celebrates the truth: our economic wellbeing is inextricably linked to the wellbeing of animals. Yes, even several books are offered, that book can grab the audience heart therefore much. Number any issues to face, simply for this day, you are able to really bear in mind that the book the humane economy populism capitalism and democracy PDF Full Ebook is the best book for you. Why should watch for some days to have or receive the the humane economy populism capitalism and democracy PDF Full Ebook book that you order? Why should you bring it if you may get the faster one? You can find exactly the same book that you order right here. The humane economy populism capitalism and democracy PDF Full Ebook stands out as the PDF with the book. The humane economy populism capitalism and democracy PDF Full Ebook often is the PDF with the book. As the part of publication categories, the humane economy populism capitalism and democracy PDF Full Ebook usually turns into some of the most wished book. The following demonstrates that searchers are significant interest with massive nature to assist you to read. At the same time, if the humane economy populism capitalism and democracy PDF Full Ebook is undoubtedly revealed, it might be some virtually all wanted book that will purchase. The Humane Economy – Wayne Pacelle – Hardcover “The Humane Economy is a brilliant book that celebrates the truth: our economic wellbeing is inextricably linked to the wellbeing of animals. The Humane Economy Paperback Edition – WaynePacelle.org “The Humane Economy is a brilliant book that celebrates the truth: our economic wellbeing is inextricably linked to the wellbeing of animals.

Keywords: [“book”,”economy”,”humane”]
Source: http://tehranline.co/the-humane-economy-populism-capitalism-and-democracy.pdf

Majority of young Americans prefer socialism or communism to capitalism

The second annual report on Americans’ attitudes toward socialism released last week by the anti-communist Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation worryingly reports that, in the centenary year of the Russian Revolution, most young people prefer socialism over capitalism. According to the poll, which was carried out by the international polling firm YouGov between September and October, 51 percent of those Americans currently between the ages of 21 and 29, defined in the report as “Millennials,” would prefer to live in a socialist or communist country over a capitalist country. A majority of Millennials also reported that they would not be offended if someone accused them of being a communist. While confusion remains over the meaning of socialism and communism, there is a general sense that socialism means greater social equality, the guarantee of a job at a decent wage, free high-quality education and the right to universal health care-things which capitalism has proven itself incapable of providing. Growing interest in socialism is not limited to young people. The report found that among Americans overall, more than one-third would prefer to live in a socialist or communist country. Disregarding public opinion, the Trump administration and the Republican Congress, with the complicity or support of the Democratic Party, are rushing to push through historic tax cuts that will provide a massive windfall for the ruling class and fuel opposition to capitalism. The data on attitudes toward socialism, which confirms other surveys with similar findings, is all the more extraordinary given that opposition to capitalism is excluded from the mass media. Presenting himself as a democratic socialist who was going to fight the “Billionaire class,” Sanders garnered widespread support, particularly among young people. On the centenary of the Russian Revolution there is great nervousness in the United States, the center of world imperialism, that the growing popular opposition to capitalism will produce an independent socialist movement based in the working class, taking as its example the October Revolution of 1917. While concern is being aired by anti-communist groups like the Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation, which has close ties to the Heritage Foundation, the Democratic Party is waging a vicious campaign to crack down on all oppositional sentiment by blaming Russia for sowing divisions on social media. The WSWS is being censored by Google because it gives expression to the sentiments of the ever growing segment of the population that is fundamentally opposed to the interests of the ruling class and favors the establishment of socialism.

Keywords: [“socialism”,”report”,”socialist”]
Source: https://www.wsws.org/en/articles/2017/11/07/soci-n07.html

JR Test Site News for 01-26-2018

u2r2h blog: Capitalism Snuffs out the Age of Enlightenment’s Candle

How would people react if automobile manufacturers tried to sell cars that had built in breakdown cycles? Since 1789, there has, on average, been one economic crisis every 12 years in the United States. Classical economics does not encompass all economic activity. Classical economics promotes laissez faire, laissez-passer, but there is much economic activity that no classical economist has ever attempted to apply laissez faire, laissez-passer principles to. Burglary, theft, pick-pocketing, shop lifting, fraud, prostitution, the manufacture and sale of illegal substances, loan sharking, all kinds of corruption including political, kidnapping, bribery, and many others are economic activities that no economist claims should be unregulated, unforbidden, and unpunished even when the techniques used are identical to those used by “Legal” businesses. Classical economics is topsy-turvy; it has turned economics on its head. Until the middle of the seventeenth century, the word ‘economy’ referred to household management. Mercantilism initially became the dominant economic theory and its implementation was carried out by imperial conquest and exploitation, and Adam Smith’s classical economics was introduced merely as a more efficient way of expanding national wealth. In effect, the adoption of classical/neo-classical economics not only succeeded, it extinguished the goals of the Age of Enlightenment and put an end to humanity’s progress toward liberté, égalité, fraternité and what Lincoln so aptly expressed when he spoke of “a new birth of freedom” and a “Government of the people, by the people, for the people.” Not a single such government exists today, and our nation states, although slightly altered in form, mimic the monarchial states of seventeenth century Europe in which common people not only exist for the sake of the state and its institutions but are thought of as expendable. Under classical economics, individuals supposedly act in their own self-interest as economic agents who dedicate themselves to those economic activities that bring the greatest income. Either Classical economics is founded on the completely false postulate of economic self-interest or it must be designed so that the largest numbers of people in a society are never allowed to pursue their own self-interests as economic agents. Greg Mankiw recommends majoring in economics because of its “Earnings premium of 0.33 log points and a premium of 0.19 including occupation controls.” Second, some economists have argued that no system is immoral, only people are, which is a variation on the familiar aphorism used by opponents of gun control: guns don’t kill, people do. If we want a better world for humanity in general, if we want to eliminate virtual serfdom and exploitation, and if we can’t harness the greed of economic actors, the only alternative is to remove the instrument by abandoning the economic theory. The central challenge to all countries is how to change the established economic system so that people don’t have to be placed in the position of having to choose between working in a hazardous dump and something even worse.

Keywords: [“economic”,”people”,”economist”]
Source: http://u2r2h.blogspot.com/2009/01/capitalism-snuffs-out-age-of.html

Worldview Dictionary

Compare with: Alethiological Absolutism Alethiological Absolutism: the philosophical belief that truth is real, objective, absolute, and universal. Compare with: Evolutionary Godhood, Historical Determinism, Historical Evolution, Historical Materialism,Historicism Creationism: the belief that in the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. Freewill: the philosophical belief that rational agents possess the power to exercise control over their thoughts and actions; the belief that rational agents can initiate unique actions or thoughts which are not the inevitable result of causal natural laws. Compare with: Special Revelation Global Islamic States: the political vision of many Muslims to bring all nations under Shari’ah Law, whether accomplished through peaceful means or Jihad. Compare with: Anarchy, Communism, Despotism, Fascism, Imperialism, Identity Politics, Justice, Freedom, Order, Leftism, Liberalism, Nazism, Non-Traditional State, New World Order, Secular World Government,Self-government, Social Justice, Statism, Theocracy —– H —– Hedonism: the ethical belief that pleasure is the principal good and should be the highest aim of the individual and society. Historicism: the Postmodernist historical belief that past beliefs, morals, and truths should only be understood in relation to the cultural/historical periods in which they arose, not according to any eternal standard of morality and truth. Compare with: Metaphysical Monism Metaphysical Monism: the belief that reality is composed of only one ultimate substance. Compare with: Metaphysical Pluralism Metaphysical Realism: the metaphysical belief that what one encounters in the world exists independently of human thought and social construction. Compare with: Polyandry Polygamy, Mosque, Islamic State: the Islamic sociological belief that society is divided into three God-ordained institution: family, mosque, and state. Compare with: Classless Society, Family, Church, State, Non-Traditional Church, Non-Traditional Family,Non-Traditional State, Polygamy, Mosque, Islamic State, Sexual Egalitarianism Polymorphous Sexualities: the belief that individuals can exist in more than one gender form – based upon one’s sexual identity and preference ;mdash;. Compare with: Salvific Particularism, Special Revelation, Salvific Universalism,Salvific Restrictivism, Salvific Pluralism Salvific Particularism: the religious historical Christian belief that the Bible is God’s word and that the person and work of Jesus Christ is the only means of salvation. Compare with: Salvific Inclusivism, Salvific Particularism, Salvific Restrictivism,Salvific Universalism Salvific Restrictivism: the religious belief that only those who hear and respond to the Gospel of Jesus Christ will be saved. Compare with: Critical Legal Studies, Divine Law, Natural Law, Positive Law,Proletariat Law, Shari’ah Law Sexual Egalitarianism: the Postmodern sociological belief that all sexual practices – which are based on preference and sexual identity and not physical characteristics – are equal.

Keywords: [“belief”,”See”,”Compare”]
Source: https://www.summit.org/resources/worldview-dictionary/#capitalism