J.R.’s Zaphne Blog News for 10-15-2018

Compassionate Capitalist Coffee Break – Type 2 CrowdFunding – 506c

Eight Myths Americans Need to Unlearn About America

I’m someone who wants better lives for Americans - but is also quite critical, sometimes unsparingly so, of America. If we are to ever suggest Americans should be doing better, then we must be critical of America too, and examine why it hasn’t flourished and developed. Either these strange and foolish myths can be true, or America can be where it is - but you can’t have both. America does have a high rate of charitable giving - but that is because contributions are tax deductible, and the ultra-rich use them as a way to shield themselves from taxes. Virtue is a thing which results in the public good - and yet America has no public goods, from healthcare to retirement to childcare to elderly care. 

America doesn’t make the best stuff - it doesn’t make stuff anymore at all, really. In America, these things are mostly left to billionaires to fund, and so Americans have Tesla and weird startups that let people buy teenagers’ blood - but Europeans have cleaner energy grids and advanced public healthcare. America is full of people trying to do the right thing!! Maybe it is. If your bar for collapse is Mad Max meets the Strain sure, America hasn’t collapsed yetto that point. 

Just go away!! We don’t need to listen to people who are critical of America! They’ll never help us!! Listen. There are not many people in America who observe it in that way, which is the way that I do - because not many have a lens that isn’t just made of the same old American myths. 

Mostly, American commentary is made by people who’ve only ever lived, studied, worked, played in America. 

Keywords: [“America”,”American”,”people”]
Source: https://eand.co/eight-myths-americans-need-to-unlearn-about-america-560fa10ddba6

Why capitalism is like a broken down car

Professor Muhammad Yunus was at his provocative best here at the World Economic Forum annual meeting in Davos. In a special one to one debate with Rana Foroohar from Time magazine, he claimed that the current capitalist system simply had to be replaced altogether. He likened the current capitalist system to an old car. When you have an old car, he said, it starts to break down and you have to repair it. This starts to happen more and more frequently until it is only logical to replace the old car with a brand new model. 

Logic dictates, he maintained, that as the current capitalist system keeps breaking down it must be replaced with a completely new economic system. There was a glint is his eye when he said this because he knew that he caught everyone’s attention but he went on describe what a new economic system might look like. Yunus was full of ideas about what a sustainable economic system might look like in a world where poverty no longer existed. There has been a great deal of discussion in Davos this year about how to change the current economic model. As the engine of the current economic system seems to be straining and spluttering with high unemployment, so the idea of having a completely new car to deal with the challenges of today seems quite appealing. 

Pictured: A man repairs a car on a street in Havana in this September 22, 2010 picture. The views expressed in this article are those of the author alone and not the World Economic Forum. 

Keywords: [“Economic”,”system”,”new”]
Source: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2012/02/yunus-ditch-capitalism-for-a-new-car/

Compassionate Capitalism With David Meltzer

You’re one of those people that every time I’m with I feel like I’m at home. Part of the reason people are so curious about other people’s pivots is that the word pivot has a connotation of something went wrong and something went bust. One of the most famous pivots that I sometimes share with people that people don’t know is that YouTube was originally a video dating site. Sometimes we didn’t have food, but the only time there was any awareness of unhappiness in my home was when I’d catch my mom crying because the car broke down or the dishwasher didn’t work or she couldn’t afford me to go to a camp and she was worried about how she was going to pay for college with all these bright children. I’m going to be rich because when I graduate law school from Tulane and I studied really hard, top of my class, I had two job offers. 

That’s my first prayer every day, that God put ten people in front of me I can help. Most people go the whole day and they don’t get the car back to center where you can just have one finger on it. For a lot of people, it’s really important what you’re talking about, something that’s pragmatic in the spiritual realm. We’re getting into some fun things here with people who visit. Most people are not making time for themselves and for their own self-care. 

I’m going to ask you the final question, David. You can get there by going to PivotFB.com, a really simple shortcut to get to that spot. 

Keywords: [“going”,”people”,”know”]
Source: https://www.adammarkel.com/podcasts/compassionate-capitalism-david-meltzer/

J.R.’s Zaphne Blog News for 05-05-2018

Compassionate Nationalism

Given the virulent opposition Trump seems to attract, particularly with respect to policies that embrace the principle of America First, it would be helpful to try to explain some of its moral foundations. The crucial moral argument in favor of nationalism is that America cannot be a force for good in the world unless it is internally cohesive and economically strong. Therefore protecting the American way of life is a prerequisite to America helping the rest of the world achieve that way of life. America needs to restrict immigration primarily to individuals who are highly skilled in professions where there are shortages of American workers. The moral argument against this, of course, is that America should rescue the impoverished refugees and offer them safe haven. 

America Cannot Possibly Accommodate the World’s Poor.America currently has a population of 330 million people. According to the latest projections from the United Nations, not including China, the 50 nations in the world with the greatest projected increases to their population include only two developed nations: America and Great Britain. America is projected to add 55 million people to its population in the next 20 years. These arguments miss the point, which is that even if America admitted millions of economic refugees, there would still be billions of people who will continue to live in desperate poverty in the nations those relative few who escape leave behind. The Moral PathIf America is economically strong, with skilled, capable immigrants who have left behind a diverse assortment of poverty-stricken nations, foreign aid isn’t the only way to help those nations. 

Embracing compassionate nationalism is the moral path towards making America great again. If America truly recovered the energy and vision of the nation it was a century ago, Americans would invest in mega-projects in developing nations. 

Keywords: [“America”,”nation”,”people”]
Source: https://amgreatness.com/2018/03/25/compassionate-nationalism

Corporate Compassion. NOW

This week NOW talks to both Jonathan Schwartz, the charismatic chief executive officer and president of Sun Microsystems, and billionaire venture capitalist Vinod Khosla, about their efforts to invest and grow programs that help the world be a better place. Khosla describes a radical proposal to move all U.S. automobile fuel consumption from gasoline to ethanol, the most widely-used biofuel, according to the latest government figures. Jonathan Schwartz is chief executive officer and president of Sun Microsystems, and a member of Sun’s board of directors. Schwartz was promoted to president and COO in 2004, and managed all operational functions at Sun. 

Prior to his position as CEO, Schwartz served as Sun’s executive vice president for software, its chief strategy officer, and held a variety of leadership positions across product and corporate development. He joined Sun in 1996 after the company acquired Lighthouse Design, where he was CEO and co-founder. Prior to that, Schwartz was with McKinsey & Co. An inveterate blogger, Schwartz received degrees in economics and mathematics from Wesleyan University. Vinod Khosla is the head of Khosla Ventures, a company that offers venture assistance, strategic advice, and capital to entrepreneurs. 

The company focuses on traditional technologies, such as computing and mobile, as well as innovative technologies that offer environmental benefits. Khosla is one of the co-founders of the technology firm Sun Microsystems as well as Daisy Systems, a computer aided design system for electrical engineers. Khosla is a charter member of TiE, a not-for-profit global network of entrepreneurs and professionals founded in 1992. Khosla graduated with a Bachelors in Electrical Engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology in Delhi. 

Keywords: [“Khosla”,”Schwartz”,”Sun”]
Source: http://www.pbs.org/now/shows/249/index.html

Compassion and the Humanities

That this is a reasonable, indeed an essential, way of thinking and feeling is intrinsic to the idea of the humanities, the study of what is human. It is within this moral frame that Terence’s line, clichéd though it has become over the centuries, becomes so vital: Homo sum, humani nihil a me alienum puto – I am human, and nothing human is alien to me. By its very nature every embodied spirit is doomed to suffer and enjoy in solitude. Sensations, feelings, insights, fancies-all these are private and, except through symbols and at second hand, incommunicable. We can pool information about experiences, but never the experiences themselves. 

From family to nation, every human group is a society of island universes. In certain cases communication between universes is incomplete or even nonexistent. The greater the suffering of that neighbor, the more rigorous must our attention be if we are to reach some understanding. For the last 25 years or more what used to be the humanistic disciplines have ignored the vital Terentian claim that nothing fully alienates one human from another. Not by acknowledging the power and shaping force of race and gender and sexual orientation and culture, but by treating them as a series of hermetically sealed boxes, they have made it increasingly difficult, if not impossible, for their students to see themselves as sharing common experiences and common pursuits. 

If you cannot see your fellow students, or colleagues, as engaged in a common and intrinsically human search for knowledge – maybe even wisdom – then you will have no incentive to cross the boundaries of race, gender, or culture. If our young people are going to see that there are less confrontational alternatives, something other than zero-sum games, they’ll need instruction in the humanities. 

Keywords: [“human”,”feel”,”experience”]
Source: http://www.theamericanconservative.com/jacobs/compassion-and-the-humanities

J.R.’s Zaphne Blog News for 04-26-2018

The New Nonprofit Paradigm: Fusing Compassion with Capitalism – Ventureneer

His for-profit company, Pallotta Team Works, invented two high-profile events: the AIDSRides and Breast Cancer 3-Days, raising over a half billion dollars and netting $305 million in eight years. Pallotta doesn’t come close to suggesting ways to improve performance within the existing nonprofit paradigm. Rather, he argues that the paradigm itself is the problem, and calls into question our fundamental canons about charity. His thesis: society’s nonprofit ethic undermines our ability to eradicate great problems and puts charities at a severe disadvantage to the for-profit sector at every level. Compensation: We allow the for-profit sector to pay people millions, but don’t want anyone paid a high salary in charity. 

That means charities can’t set aside funds to develop long-term solutions. Learning: We aren’t upset when Paramount makes a $200 million movie that fails, but if a charity experiments with a bold new fundraising initiative that disappoints, we want heads to roll. So charities are petrified – too scared to try any new endeavors and unable to benefit from the valuable learning curve that comes with exploration and innovation. Capital: We let for-profit companies raise massive capital in the stock market by offering investment returns, but we forbid the payment of a financial return to charity. The for-profit sector monopolizes the capital markets while charities are left to beg for donations. 

Another critical area where charities must compete is in the acquisition and retention of dynamic, dedicated leadership. As long as Americans see charity as a field in which people must suffer in the name of doing good, says Pallotta, we are preventing much good from being done. 

Keywords: [“charity”,”for-profit”,”nonprofit”]
Source: http://ventureneer.com/the-new-nonprofit-paradigm-fusing-compassion-with…

How to end crony capitalism

The quicker Republicans get this done, and without hearings, the less likely will the rest of the country discover how much it will cost in foregone Medicaid and Medicare or ballooning budget deficits. Donald Trump has been trashing democratic institutions – the independence of the press, judges who disagree with him, uncooperative legislators – while raking in money off his presidency. Don’t lose sight of the larger attack on our democracy that was underway even before Trump was elected: A flood of big money into politics. Lest you conclude it’s only Republicans who have been pocketing big bucks in exchange for political favors, consider what Big Tech – the industry that’s mostly bankrolled Democrats – is up to. Never underestimate the power of big money, whichever side of the aisle it’s aimed at. 

Big money is buying giant tax cuts, allowing Russia to interfere in future elections, and killing Americans. Republicans may be taking more big money, but both parties have been raking it in. A number of Trump voters told me they voted for him because they wanted someone who’d shake up Washington, drain the swamp, and get rid of crony capitalism. They’re decent folks who just want a government that’s not of, by, and for the moneyed interests. The big money that’s taken over American politics in recent years has created the biggest political backlash in postwar American history – inside both parties. 

It’s splitting the Republican Party between its large corporate patrons and a base that detests big corporations and Wall Street. When it comes to getting big money out of politics and ending crony capitalism, there’s no right or left, and certainly no middle. 

Keywords: [“big”,”money”,”Republican”]
Source: https://www.nationofchange.org/2017/10/23/end-crony-capitalism

The American Conservative

Despite his myriad failings as a president, Bush had a human decency, and an inspiring vision of America, that is painfully lacking in our politics today. Maybe it’s just that I grew up with Bush-he was president from the time I was 8 to the time I was 16-but there’s something comforting and almost endearing about our 43rd president’s political style. There is a hardness in our discourse today, in politics and in culture, that did not exist 16 years ago, or even eight. Perhaps Hillary Clinton retained some of this folksy style, but style it was; her policies were bland technocracy mixed with social liberalism, a mix that gratified elites but did not particularly resonate with the American people. To speak on its convention stage can no longer claim to be the party of the average American. 

Despite all of this, there is a window for healing and uniting the country-in Trumpism’s core ideas. Stripped of Trump’s brand of aggressive demagoguery, these ideas might even be largely uncontroversial. Far from somehow being at odds, the aspirational, folksy style of George W. Bush and the core ideas of Trumpism go hand in hand: while America should not be encased in amber, its longstanding, praiseworthy traditions and ways of life should not be sledgehammered merely to make way for globalized creative destruction. The core challenge for conservatives now is to implement the best of Trump’s ideas while disavowing the worst of his political style. 

Bush doesn’t hold a copyright on that turn of phrase. What American politics needs is compassionate Trumpism. Addison Del Mastro is an editorial assistant at The American Conservative. 

Keywords: [“Bush”,”America”,”style”]
Source: http://www.theamericanconservative.com/articles/compassionate-trumpism

J.R.’s Zaphne Blog News for 03-20-2018

The Case For Compassionate Capitalism

To save capitalism from itself, FDR introduced what turned out to be the crucial missing ingredient: compassion. The damage done to the country during the Depression convinced him that unregulated capitalism always favors the rich at the expense of everyone else. So to save capitalism from itself, FDR introduced what turned out to be the crucial missing ingredient: compassion. Compassionate capitalism worked for everyone without busting the federal budget. Under Roosevelt’s compassionate capitalism – even with a Great Depression and a Second World War – the federal budget quickly came right back into balance. By the time Eisenhower was elected, compassionate capitalism was tightly woven into the fabric of American democracy. America’s social safety net was never viewed as the cause of eye-popping deficits until a radical group of political nihilists decided that the best way to kill the compassion in capitalism was to stubbornly refuse to pay for it. The reason compassionate capitalism is still hugely popular – Tea Party extremists notwithstanding – is because it works. America’s social safety net was never viewed as the cause of eye-popping deficits until a radical group of political nihilists, led by people like Grover Norquist, decided that the best way to kill the compassion in capitalism was to stubbornly refuse to pay for it – and then blame the resulting deficits on the lie that compassion itself is just too damn expensive. History has repeatedly demonstrated that compassionate capitalism leads to balanced budgets, a robust economy, and a piece of the opportunity pie for every citizen seated at America’s table.

Keywords: [“capitalism”,”deficit”,”America”]
Source: http://cognoscenti.legacy.wbur.org/2013/03/21/nick-paleologos

Libertarian Propaganda With Your Organic Arugula? – Mother Jones

If you shop at Whole Foods, you’ve probably seen the ads at the cash register for Conscious Capitalism. To give Mackey his due, he proved that many shoppers are willing to pay a premium for foods that are healthy, sustainably produced, and sold by workers who earn decent wages and health benefits. Reading between the lines you gradually get the sense that Mackey not only fears bad government, but also the one we have right now. If CEOs just did a little bit better job of looking out for the interests of their workers, their suppliers, and the environment, then government regulators and tax collectors could basically pack up and go home. We’d be left with a sort of enlightened corporatocracy in which people like Mackey would lead the way. At times, Mackey reveals a pathetic lack of consciousness for someone writing a book about it. If the dream world that Mackey paints in Conscious Capitalism inspires a few more CEOs to allow bathroom breaks in their sweatshops or spare some old-growth hardwoods in Borneo, then he has accomplished something. Conscious Capitalism could have been an interesting read if Mackey had chosen to pull back the curtain. He could speak frankly about some of the trade-offs that he made in order to popularize organic foods. For better or worse, Mackey has been thrust into a position of leadership that transcends the particulars of selling sustainably caught cod and organic kombucha: Whole Foods beat out other natural foods chains to dominate the market, and with that dominance comes an increasing duty to represent his politically minded customers in causes that they care about.

Keywords: [“Mackey”,”Capitalism”,”write”]
Source: https://www.motherjones.com/food/2013/01/whole-foods-john-mackey…

Natural Capitalism – Mother Jones

Today, more people are chasing fewer natural resources. Industry still operates by the same rules, using more resources to make fewer people more productive. As businesses successfully created more goods and jobs, consumer demand soared, compounding the destruction of natural capital. If the competitive advantage goes to the low-cost provider, and resources are cheap, then business will naturally use more and more resources in order to maximize worker productivity. Our thinking is backward: We shouldn’t use more of what we have less of to use less of what we have more of. In the United States, those who are employed, and presumably becoming more productive, find they are working 100 to 200 hours more per year than 20 years ago. In some cases – wind power, for example – the technologies not only operate more efficiently and pollute less, they also are more labor-intensive. This is what it promises: an economy that uses progressively less material and energy each year and where the quality of consumer services continues to improve; an economy where environmental deterioration stops and gets reversed as we invest in increasing our natural capital; and, finally, a society where we have more useful and worthy work available than people to do it. Natural capitalism may not guarantee particular outcomes, but it will ensure that economic systems more closely mimic biological systems, which have successfully adapted to dynamic changes over millennia. Almost perfectly with what American voters say they want: better schools,a better environment, safer communities, more economic security, stronger.

Keywords: [“more”,”resource”,”system”]
Source: https://www.motherjones.com/politics/1997/03/natural-capitalism

Capitalism, Compassion, and The Prisoner’s Dilemma

From a strictly rational, individualistic perspective, the choice is clear. This choice results in a 50/50 chance between a 5 year sentence and complete freedom, depending on the choice of the other prisoner, while cooperation would result in, at best, a six month sentence, and a 10 year sentence at worst. No matter what the other player does, one player will always gain by defecting. All things being equal, all rational players should choose defect. Now, I’m no expert on game theory, but what struck me in class when we were going over this was the fact that, although the clear rational choice for each individual player is to defect, a situation in which both players make this choice is clearly not the optimal outcome if we look at the game as a whole. Being a non-zero-sum game, the sum of both players’ gains, less their losses, need not return to zero, nor be equal in every possible outcome. Any instance in which one player chooses defect will result in a total of ten years of prison time, split either five-five or ten-zero. If both players cooperate a total of only one year, six months for each player, must be served. According to traditional game theory, cooperation is only a viable choice if the game is repeated an infinite or random number of times, as only then will the possible threat of punishment outweigh the potential for success with defection. If rather than considering only one’s own well-being, we look at that of both prisoners, taking into account the total effect of one’s choice, cooperation would be the only acceptable option for the compassionate player.

Keywords: [“plays”,”choice”,”game”]
Source: https://rossheutmaker.wordpress.com/2009/04/10/capitalism…

J.R.’s Zaphne Blog News for 02-24-2018


Firstly, the postulation that aspects of socialist theory to a certain extent chime in harmony with biblical teaching and aligns with the way we often picture the New Testament church. Secondly, a question – why does the conservative, evangelical church tend to lean towards those promoting a capitalist agenda? Coming onto the second point, the conservative evangelical church does tend towards capitalism, despite that fact that it has many, many serious flaws. Conservative Christians, have always seen the great threat to stable society posed by liberal morality and have reacted against it, often perhaps without noticing that the underlying principles of left-of-centre politics are more compassionate and aligned with biblical teaching. Equally, in focusing on the morally conservative politics that have often gone hand in hand with capitalist economic policy, it is easy to ignore the great problems that capitalism brings, making the poor poorer, the rich richer and concentrating power in the hands of an elite few who are only concerned about themselves – think of Jesus’s teaching about the rich fool. I’ve suggested positives of socialist theory and negatives of capitalism. To be fair, this is not to say that socialist theory does not have major problems or capitalism benefits. You are causing the rest of the church a great deal of harm. In the hands of evil men, socialism is evil, in the hands of evil men, capitalism is also evil. Should we bury our heads in the sand, hide behind our closed church doors and avoid the ballot box? Certainly not.

Keywords: [“church”,”Capitalism”,”socialist”]
Source: https://jpschristianworldview.wordpress.com/tag/capitalism

Compassionate Capitalism

The other day Russian President Vladimir Putin who is the longest ruling person in Russia after Ivan the Great and Stalin called America “a parasite of world economy.” Well, all communists say so but we have to ask China if they really believe it at heart or they wouldn’t have had the rapid growth they are having for last few years. Capitalism which is based on free enterprise system in America has been the reason behind the great success achieved by America since its birth. My personal experience with free enterprise system goes back to over 5 years ago when I got involved in a business opportunity where I could create an unlimited income with my sweat equity. To tell you the truth, the first year I failed miserably. This is what free enterprise system of America means to me where anybody from any background can work hard, create opportunity and determine their own destiny. People come to America looking for an opportunity like the one I just mentioned. That’s why, in America we say “No more Cheesecrackers.” A little better than capitalism is “Compassionate Capitalism,” a phrase recently coined which is not about “Money getting” but about “Serving people” because law of success is service and biggest businesses are now realizing it more now than ever. Many analysts still consider America to be in a recession period but few businesses seem to be sky rocketing even in this market. The basic motto of free enterprise system is that law of success is service and greatest server is the greatest leader.

Keywords: [“America”,”own”,”year”]
Source: http://thenewyorkcitypost.com/compassionate-capitalism

Anti-capitalism vs Post-capitalism

Capitalism, like all words that evoke emotions, has as many definitions as there are proponents or discontents. The Market Libertarian definition, to which we can also count the Objectivist definition, is that capitalism is productive human action, free individuals that agree on whether they want to buy or sell products and services on a free market. Capitalism in short is individuals making free decisions. The Marxist definition is that capitalism is a specific system of production, based around a hierarchical concentration of wealth and power. What separates Capitalism from Feudalism is that while Feudalism is centered around Land, Capitalism is centered around Capital – the concentration of possessions. Capitalism will eventually, according to Marx and Engels, have so many contradictions that it will lead to an inevitable worker’s revolution and a system based on the dictatorship of the proletariat, which will develop into a classless society where all the means of production are owned collectively by the people. The Cosmology of the EOS. What is Capitalism, according to the EOS? What we can say for certain is that Capitalism will be replaced within the next two centuries, and that there are three possible scenarios for how it can evolve into something else. Post-capitalism is whatever system of production and distribution that succeeds Capitalism. We don’t owe Capitalism to let it continue to exist only because it allowed an unprecedented standard of life in the western world during the 20th century.

Keywords: [“Capitalism”,”system”,”society”]
Source: https://eoshorizon.wordpress.com/2014/10/30/anti-capitalism-vs…

Neoliberal Capitalism, Emotion and Morality – States, Power, Emotion

Neoliberalism does not however, as some have claimed, have its own moral framework. For sure, the advancement of a neoliberal political economic agenda relies on an illusion of moral unity in fabricating claims about the ‘public good’, ‘fairness’, and ‘justice’. Neoliberalism is not a moral project, but an emotional project. Acknowledging the role of culture is not the same as implying neoliberalism has a supporting moral order despite the likes of Thatcher and others attempting to persuade us that it does. Neoliberalism ‘has morals’ to the extent that it has moral interests – but this is a contradiction-in-terms or a misnomer. Such as morality is not imposed from on high: it is deliberative and relatively spontaneous; it is a debated morality not simple moralizing. For Durkheim ideas that promoted particular group interests at the expense of others are not moral but were merely interests with associated habits and ways of seeing and doing that jeopardized collective solidarity, compassion and understanding. So if the powerful do not govern on a moral basis what do they govern on? Of course, they share ‘worldview’s’, cultural outlooks and norms and values. It’s important to say these were deeply immoral acts of state and any wider support for such action speaks not so much to moral affinities between powerful and powerless groups as much as it does to emotional inflammations engineered by governments that sustain popular fears, hopes and anxieties. Capitalism is more a love [and hate] story than a moral one.

Keywords: [“moral”,”morality”,”interest”]
Source: https://emotionalstates.wordpress.com/2016/07/07/neoliberal…

J.R.’s Zaphne Blog News for 02-05-2018

Late-stage capitalism: Denying the Imperium of Death

The emotional and physical pain, anxiety, and depression inflicted by the trauma inherent to a system sustained by perpetual exploitation has proven to be too much for a sizeable number of human beings to endure thus their need to self-medicate. The forces in play impose a colonizing effect upon the mind; therefore, a large percent of the afflicted have lost the ability to detect the hyper-entropic system’s ravaging effects. Stranded among the commercial come-ons and hyper-authoritarianism inherent to late-stage capitalism’s imperium of death, the human psyche, like the biosphere of our planet, subjected, at present, to humankind-wrought ecocide, has begun to display the terrible beauty of a nightmare. I’ve known, over the years, hundreds of human beings, born into and ensnared by the crime against humanity known as poverty, broken by the culture of greed and social degradation, and blamed by the clueless and the callous for the tragic trajectory in which impersonal fate and the wounding culture, by no fault of their own, has placed them. Truth is the system, a hierarchy of ghouls, is maintained by harvesting the corpses of the powerless, by means of imperial slaughter and domestic, economic exploitation. The system’s psychopathic beneficiaries, in particular, are aware of the reality. Moreover the beneficiaries of the system promote the lie that shame should be the exclusive dominion of those broken by their system, a system, which is, in essence, a form of government-sanctioned gangsterism, by which they, the ruthless few, and they alone, benefit. We human beings, as a species, have arrived at a profound point of demarcation: paradigm shift or perish. The victims of drug overdoses and, in general, the large and rising, without precedent, untimely deaths of middle-aged, laboring-class people should be regarded as canaries in the coal mines of the late-stage capitalist order, an augury of calamities that loom due to the exponentially increasing harm being inflicted upon both humanity and environmental forces crucial to sustaining the continued viability of the human race. If reality is met head-on, if empire, external and its inner analog, is renounced and challenged, then a liberation staged by the heart’s partisans can begin, thereby freeing up a great amount of acreage – a fructifying landscape – wherein both the earth’s ecosystem and the architecture of human desire can begin to co-exist and cross-pollinate thus a crucial re-visioning of oneself and the culture can begin.

Keywords: [“system”,”human”,”being”]
Source: https://www.mintpressnews.com/late-stage-capitalism-denying-the…

Compassion and Politics

The attack exemplified a notable recent trend in the discourse of prominent wealthy Democrats: the heaping of limitless contempt upon poor people. ” “Karma is a bitch and if these people choose to continue to vote Republican and try to deny other. [sic] from attaining the American dream, they deserve no better than what they are getting!” “I for one have little sympathy for these despairing whites. If they can’t compete against people of color when everything has been rigged in their favor, then there’s really no help for them. Trump and his G(r)OPers will do little to elevate their lot. If anything, these poor whites will be hired to dig grave pits and assemble their own coffins.” Rich is a wealthy man telling poor people that their problems are their own fault and they should exercise some personal responsibility. Someone whose publicly-stated view is that the country should be run by its enlightened oligarchs and the children of its Harvard economics professors, thinks the Democratic Party is a more congenial home for his politics than the Republican Party. We can design a kind of useful metric-a Barrometer, if you will-for determining whether your political party is adequately representing working people’s interests. It’s quite simple: if Josh Barro is in your party, then your party is failing to represent working people’s interests. “Today’s Democrats talk about the Republican-leaning parts of the United States as though they were particularly unsympathetic Third World countries, populated by people who not only lost life’s lottery but deserved it.” The answer is that Democrats are supposed to be the ones who aren’t callous assholes like Kevin Williamson, that they’re the ones who are supposed to believe people don’t bring their pain on themselves and that you don’t discard people merely because they’ve made foolish decisions. The moment you find yourself saying “They brought it on themselves” or “I have no sympathy,” you have ceased to practice the basic moral principle that should drive left-wing politics, which is a deep compassion for people’s struggles and a desire to help them make their lives better. The whole idea of universal compassion is that you don’t have to choose: you care about people in proportion to the amount they are being hurt, so the people who will be hurt the most can receive the most attention without diminishing the struggles of those who are being hurt somewhat less.

Keywords: [“people”,”Party”,”Trump”]
Source: https://www.currentaffairs.org/2017/03/compassion-and-politics

Top 10 Reasons To Be Proud Of The United States of America

As a veteran, I thought a top ten list outlining what makes America great might be in order, especially today. Of course, many of America’s finest inventors came here from other countries, but that doesn’t detract from the fact that it was in America that they found the right combination of freedom and financial resources to do amazing things. Sadly, history is replete with citizens suffering religious persecution and violence at the hands of both their own government, as well as from other religious groups This has rarely been the case in America where citizens are guaranteed the right to worship as they wish-or not worship at all if that is their desire-without fear of being arrested, persecuted, or shunned by the rest of society, as is so often the case in some countries. The ability of anyone to start a business and become wealthy in this country, as compared to most other nations, is one of the hallmarks of what America is all about. The Mexican-American war of 1845 is a good example of this; though the brief war ended in a Mexican rout, America not only didn’t annex the country, but quickly withdrew once hostilities ended. Most likely there wouldn’t even be a United States today, but a plethora of small and mid-sized countries much like we see in Europe, with all the strife such divisions naturally manifest. There are many places of breath-taking beauty around the globe, with each country lying claim to its own natural wonders and extraordinary scenery, but no one country possesses such a broad range of natural wonders as does the United States. Stretching from California in the West, to New England in the East, the United States of America covers an area of 3.79 million square miles, making it the third largest nation on Earth, by area. In what other country on the planet can you go from snow-capped mountain peaks to white sandy beaches, and from the desert to forested mountains, all within a few hours driving time of each other? That’s why America is one of the top tourist attractions for foreigners; few of whom have anything like the Grand Canyon, Yellowstone, the Everglades, or Pikes Peak back home. How popular are we? According to the U.N.’s World Tourism Organization, each year the U.S. consistently places second on the list of the top ten most visited countries, with a whopping 60 million foreign visitors coming to our shores each year.

Keywords: [“country”,”America”,”even”]
Source: http://www.toptenz.net/top-10-reasons-to-be-proud-of-the-united-states.php

J.R.’s Zaphne Blog News for 02-01-2018

The Time Machine Themes

“The Time Machine” is Wells’s Socialist warning of what will befall mankind if capitalism continues to exploit workers for the benefits of the rich. As the Time Traveler theorizes, the working class has been pushed underground for so long that it has evolved into a distinct, nocturnal species. Wells tells his Victorian audience to look at its own time, in which the industrial revolution has further divided the classes, and consider the possibility of its turning into the Eloi if capitalism continues to run rampant. Social Darwinism ignored this idea and contended that the social environment was much like the cutthroat natural environment, and that those who succeeded were biologically destined to do so and to continue in their march to human perfection. In “The Time Machine,” the beautiful Eloi seem, at first, to be the perfect inhabitants of an advanced age. The Time Traveler soon discovers that the advancements of civilization have enfeebled the Eloi; without any pressing requirements for survival, they have become weak, lazy, and stupid. The changing environment may not always produce desirable changes in man, and Social Darwinism’s argument that those who succeed in a given environment are naturally superior is not valid. The concept of entropy states that systems tend toward disorder and loss of energy over time, an idea many perceive as contradictory to evolution, since evolution implies that systems grow more ordered in their complexity over time. Wells is clearly a believer in entropy, as evidenced by two parts of “The Time Machine.” The futuristic Eloi personify entropy; they are lazy, dull creatures whose energy is easily sapped and who live in chaotic fear of the Morlocks. The White Sphinx is a curious landmark in 802,701 AD. The Morlocks stow the Time Machine inside its enclosed bronze pedestal, so it becomes a symbolic and literal barrier for the Time Traveler, much as the sphinx blocked the entrance for the Greek hero Oedipus. The sphinx has a direct relationship to the Time Traveler’s plight; a symbol of futurity and of man’s submission to God, the Egyptian Sphinx faces the rising sun god Ra each day in worship. The TT, on the other hand, must in some ways defy God by embracing rational science as he gains mastery over time, and he must also break into the sphinx to escape from the future and go back in time.

Keywords: [“Time”,”environment”,”social”]
Source: http://www.gradesaver.com/the-time-machine/study-guide/themes

Capitalism, American style; a failing system, no longer a model for the world

Capitalism has worked well in various countries over time; in fact, we can say that it once worked quite well in America. Those days are coming to an end and we can conclude that the form of capitalism currently practiced in America is no longer working in the best interests of this country and a large portion of its people. What was portrayed in that movie is no laughing matter for the many millions of Americans whose quality of life has been greatly diminished over decades because of the way this system has been rigged to work against them. The beginning of the transformation of the U.S. manufacturing sector from one that utilized the skills of American workers to one now greatly dependent on foreign workers had its roots in the late 1970’s and early 1980’s when huge corporations such as GE began to move jobs overseas. Mr. Welch showed he had no allegiance to U.S. workers but he still wanted those same workers to be loyal to him and buy the products that GE was producing in other countries. At this point in time, Corporate America and the U.S. system of capitalism are doing a fabulous job of providing jobs for foreign workers all over the world. There are those who totally dismiss the premise that American capitalism no longer works and that is a failing system. Model for the rest of the world? If we really want to see the system of capitalism that, based on the time-honored principles of true capitalism, and how it should work for the good of a country and its people, we must look to another nation. Talk about success and effectiveness; let’s take a look at the successes of the German system works and why it deserves the great amount of respect and admiration it receives from other countries. American CEOs would find it very difficult to understand how Germany has been able to create a manufacturing atmosphere in which unions, management, and government are able to work closely together in meeting common objectives. Here’s one of many articles that one can find all over the internet which extols the virtues of the German system, why it works so well for most everyone in that country. That’s exactly why the America brand of capitalism is failing and capitalism, German style, should now be considered as the model for the world; the way true capitalism should be practiced.

Keywords: [“work”,”Capitalism”,”America”]
Source: https://www.nationofchange.org/2017/05/28/capitalism-american…

J.R.’s Zaphne Blog News for 01-31-2018

[PDF] Read compassionate capitalism a judeo Book Free

Read compassionate capitalism a judeo Books for Free. Download Compassionate Capitalism A Judeo Christian Value written by Harold R. Eberle and has been published by this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 2010-06 with Religion categories. Compassionate Capitalism is a historical look at the birth and developmet of capitalism. Download Compassionate Capitalism written by Rich DeVos and has been published by Plume Books this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 1994 with Business & Economics categories. Download Compassionate Capitalism written by Blaine Bartlett and has been published by Tisn Media this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 2016-06-01 with Business & Economics categories. Compassionate capitalism is an economic system meant to make a lot of money, help a lot of people, and have a lot of fun. Download Capitalism And The Jews written by Jerry Z. Muller and has been published by Princeton University Press this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 2010-01-04 with History categories. In this book Jerry Muller, a leading historian of capitalism, separates myth from reality to explain why the Jewish experience with capitalism has been so important and complex-and so ambivalent. Drawing on economic, social, political, and intellectual history from medieval Europe through contemporary America and Israel, Capitalism and the Jews examines the ways in which thinking about capitalism and thinking about the Jews have gone hand in hand in European thought, and why anticapitalism and anti-Semitism have frequently been linked. The book shows how the ancient idea that money was unproductive led from the stigmatization of usury and the Jews to the stigmatization of finance and, ultimately, in Marxism, the stigmatization of capitalism itself. Providing a fresh look at an important but frequently misunderstood subject, Capitalism and the Jews will interest anyone who wants to understand the Jewish role in the development of capitalism, the role of capitalism in the modern fate of the Jews, or the ways in which the story of capitalism and the Jews has affected the history of Europe and beyond, from the medieval period to our own. Download Capitalism And Socialism written by Michael Novak and has been published by American Enterprise Institute this book supported file pdf, txt, epub, kindle and other format this book has been release on 1979 with Political Science categories.

Keywords: [“capitalism”,”book”,”economic”]
Source: https://bookskingdom.net/read/compassionate-capitalism-a-judeo…

Dr. Gabor Maté On The Nexus Between Addiction & Childhood Development

What if everything you presuppose about addiction is wrong? World renowned lecturer, physician and bestselling author, today’s guest is a highly distinguished, in demand and at times controversial authority with a wealth of expertise on a range of topics that span addiction, stress and childhood development. With over twelve years of first hand experience working up close and personal on Vancouver’s skid row with patients severely challenged by hard core drug addictions, mental illness and HIV, Dr. Maté has cultivated a powerful yet eminently commonsensical perspective on this devastating affliction that contravenes conventional medical dogma. Addiction has little to do with illicit substances. Instead, addiction is about the emotional pain behind the behavior. Based on cutting edge science, case studies and a wealth of personal experience, Dr. Maté concludes that addiction is a predisposition programmed in early years – an infestation that lurks miles beyond choice. As an author, Dr. Maté has written extensively on the subjects of addiction, early childhood development & trauma, attention deficit disorder, and the relationship between stress and disease. His most recent award-winning book, In the Realm of Hungry Ghosts: Close Encounters with Addiction mixes personal stories with science to present a radical re-envisioning of addiction not as a discrete phenomenon confined to an unfortunate or weak-willed few, but as a continuum that runs throughout our society at large; not a medical “Condition” distinct from the lives it affects, but rather the result of a complex interplay among personal history, emotional, and neurological development, brain chemistry, and the drugs of addiction. Dr. Maté’s work – and this book in particular – have been absolutely revelatory in helping me better understand myself, my personal history with addiction, and my ever evolving quest for greater well being. I truly believe his message holds the power to improve the lives of anyone personally or tangentially impacted by addiction. The misplaced criminalization of addiction the denial of trauma in addiction addiction as a social issue the shame & stigma that drives addiction chemical effects & psychological defenses early adaptations & sources of pathology/dysfunction the impact of childhood experiences on behavior commitment to the process & the inevitable payoff self-knowledge vs. experiential knowledge acknowledgment of suffering the true nature of the human condition. Question: How can you treat those who suffer from addiction with more compassion?

Keywords: [“addiction”,”personal”,”Mat”]
Source: http://www.richroll.com/podcast/gabor-mate

US Capitalism And The Moral Poverty Of Nations

A growing number of Americans find themselves wandering in a barren desert, lacking both sustenance for the soul and the corporeal “Blessings” bestowed upon the middle class wage earners by the high priests of Capitalism and Consumerism. Conditions such as slavery, explosive growth in the number of banks, America’s powerful drive to expand its territory, neutral trade during the war between Great Britain and France, and ultimately, the Industrial Revolution enabled American Capitalism to grow into a thriving jungle. In spite of the “Feel good” propaganda intended to keep us pacified, working, and consuming, there is a very dark side to the much vaunted American Way. American Capitalism is a pyramid scheme shaped and forged over time to ensure that a small minority of principally White males garner a majority of the wealth. He Who Has the Gold Makes the Rules Consider that over half of our presidents came from families ranking amongst the wealthiest 3% of Americans while at least a dozen sprang from the loins of elitists in the top 1%. In 2005, 143 of 435 US Representatives and one in three Senators were millionaires. Meanwhile 13% of Americans lived below poverty level. 1% of Americans own more stock than the 90% of us who dwell at the bottom of Bush’s “Ownership society”. As the semblance of a meritocracy in America succumbs to the forces of plutocratic ambition and greed under the Bush Regime, American economic system’s “Noble and fair” reputation is dutifully maintained by genuflecting mainstream media pundits. Spiritual Bankruptcy In a self-proclaimed Christian nation awash in a sea of money, guided by allegedly noble principles, and purported to have a Manifest Destiny to convert the world to the American Way, a significant number of discarded, hopelessly poor human beings are living proof of the cruel hypocrisy of the ruling elite of the United States. Offshoring of American jobs, stagnant wages, the soaring cost of housing, and the agonizing loss of industrial sector jobs with healthy wages are leaving many Americans vulnerable to financial disaster. Since the American justice system emphasizes punitive measures over rehabilitation, many of the two million incarcerated face bleak possibilities once they have completed their sentences. Of the 224 American cities that participated in a recent National Coalition for the Homeless survey, approximately 30% are taking measures targeting the homeless, including banning pan-handling and “Camping”, initiating frequent police sweeps of public areas to arrest or “Evict” homeless persons, and selectively enforcing loitering laws.

Keywords: [“American”,”America”,”homeless”]
Source: http://rense.com/general71/amrcc.htm

JR Test Site News for 01-25-2018

Enlightenment Essays

Chapter 4 The Period of Enlightenment Historical Background After 300 years of passivity under Spanish rule, the Filipino spirit reawakened when the 3 …Custom Enlightenment and Revolution Essay. During the Enlightenment and the French Revolution, there were many different attitudes toward the institution of slavery. The Our free grammar checker instantly eliminates grammatical errors and enhances your …Enlightenment Essays. Improve your reasearch with over 6 pages of premium content about Enlightenment EssayEnlightenment essaysThe Enlightenment was the philosophical and artistic movement growing out of the Renaissance and continuing until the nineteenth century. The Enlightenment was an optimistic belief that humanity could improve itself by applying logic and reason to all things. Experienced writers withthe highest satisfaction rates. Security, confidentialityand money back guaranteed!

Keywords: [“Enlightenment”,”Revolution”,”Essay”]
Source: http://buyserviceonlineessay.services/enlightenment-essays

Word List: Isms

Here are 234 different isms, each representing a philosophical, political or moral doctrine or a belief system. In selecting terms for the list, I have deliberately avoided any word which apply ism to a personal name, so that Marxism doesn’t count although it is otherwise an ideal candidate for the list. I also excluded isms which do not refer to a specific belief system, such as impressionism or alcoholism. Despite these omissions, enough remain to leave an ism in every pot, including beliefs about proper government, God, and the nature of existence itself. Of the terms on the list that are of a religious nature, most are Christian, which is not unexpected, but I’m open to adding isms from other world religions. If you have any corrections, additions, or comments, please contact me. Please note that I am not able to respond to all requests. Please consult a major dictionary before e-mailing your query.

Keywords: [“ism”,”please”,”list”]
Source: http://phrontistery.info/isms.html

Verified Book Library Freaks Fortune Emerging Capitalism America Summary Ebook Pdf: Freaks Fortune Emerging Capitalism America Ebook Pdf freaks fortune emerging capitalism america contains information and an in depth explanation about Ebook Pdf freaks fortune emerging capitalism america, its contents of the package, names of things and what they do, setup, and operation. Before by using this unit, we are encourages you to read this user guide to ensure that this unit to work properly. This manuals E-books that published today as a guide. Our site has these Ebook Pdf freaks fortune emerging capitalism america designed for free PDF download. You could find Ebook Pdf freaks fortune emerging capitalism america document other than simply manuals as we also make available many user guides, specifications documents, promotional details, setup documents and more.

Keywords: [“Freaks”,”America”,”Capitalism”]
Source: http://tornadopalace.com/e1715/freaks-fortune-emerging-capitalism-america.pdf


Absolute monarchy, in which a monarch rules free of laws or legally organized opposition; especially in the period c. 1610 – c. 1789 in Europe Autocracy, or “Political absolutism”, a political theory which argues that one person should hold all power. Moral absolutism, the belief in absolute standards against which moral questions can be judged, regardless of context. Graded absolutism, the view that a moral absolute, such as “Do not kill”, can be greater or lesser than another moral absolute, such as “Do not lie”. Absolute, an objective and unconditioned reality said to underlie perceived objects. Absolute idealism, an ontologically monistic philosophy attributed to G.W.F. Hegel. Absolute space, a theory that space exists absolutely; contrast with relationalism.

Keywords: [“Absolute”,”Moral”,”absolutism”]
Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Absolutism

The ideologies of capitalism, socialism, and capitalism rose during which period of change? The Reformation The Industrial Revolution The Age of Exploration The Enlightenment

Match the items in the left column to the items in the right column. Use the plus sign to move it up or the minus sign to move it down until it matches the correct entry in the right column. Lock your answer in place by clicking the square beside the item. Superlative degree names a particular person, place, or thing within a general class common noun names a group of more than one person or thing proper noun add the sign of the possessive to the last name coordinate adjectives names all persons, places, and things except particular ones collective noun two or more adjectives that modify the same noun joint ownership compares more than two things or actions compound adjective two or more hyphenated words used as a single adjective.

Keywords: [“noun”,”thing”,”name”]
Source: https://www.peeranswer.com/question/577c9cc7402cbf5c2b3ac634

What is laissez-faire economics? definition and meaning

Some people would prefer that there is a LAISSEZ-FAIRE ECONOMICS approach to things and that the businesses have all the control. In class, we would be going over Laissez-faire economics. Today, which excited me because I was very interested in them. The other students laughed at his views on the economy. They believed that economics should be focused on free trade and the fact that government intervention shouldn’t be allowed, they believed in Laissez-Faire Economics, a form of economics where humans affected the markets due to their selfish interest. The student they laughed at however was a staunch classical Chinese communist, who disagreed with all these views.

Keywords: [“ECONOMICS”,”LAISSEZ-FAIRE”,”interest”]
Source: http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/laissez-faire-economics.html

Quiz answers the enlightenment and revolution Quiz Answers The Enlightenment And Revolution PD F looking for quiz answers the enlightenment and revolution epub download do you really need this book of quiz answers the enlightenment and revolution epub download it takes me 65 hours just to attain the right download link, and another 7 hours to validate it. Internet could be malevolent to us who looking for free thing. Right now this 63,19 mb file of quiz answers the enlightenment and revolution epub download were still exist and ready to download. but both of us were know very well that file would not outlast for long.

Keywords: [“revolution”,”Quiz”,”download”]
Source: http://thcy.org/084d/quiz-answers-the-enlightenment-and-revolution.pdf

JR Test Site News for 01-24-2018

“Game is Over. You are Enlightened.”

Green to 2nd Tier The point is, for Being to emerge in 2nd Tier cognitive complexity is at a level that has no comparison in earlier levels. So we should expect that something is quite different when 2nd Tier Being is enacted. In a class I taught at UW-Madison in 2010, “Multi-Perspectival Thinking: Operating with All Windows Open” 10 adult learners, 7 with extensive background in Integral Studies, set out to guide ourselves into 2nd Tier Being. We found two distinguishable Lates or Stevels of 2nd Tier Being. Second Tier Being has the capacity to assemble any SI set, or accept any SI Set, and indwell this SI Set, and also to give up any perspective that emerges in one’s Being. Orange thinking entails the first emergence of Objectivity and thus early and limited intentional MPT. Green entails a wider range of intentional MPT. MPT is fully emergent, and a core skill and capacity in 2nd Tier Being. As an aside: It is the problems of rampant MPT in our current times that drew forth Wilber’s AQAL, Grave’s and other developmental models, and other matrices for ordering the multiple perspectives 2nd Tier Being makes available. Second Tier Being can see at least the whole planet, feels the suffering and the vibrancy across large expanses, sees/feels the huge expanse of time past and future as it pertains to life’s unfolding, and sees a countless array of connections throughout it all. So lst Tier Being, or 2nd Tier Being, as an intrinsic element will always be difficult to distinguish. More investigation is needed here, and the path has been laid out to do so, i.e. collect in a band of 2nd Tier Beings. The First Tier Being trajectory may be genetically set and at least it is transmitted socially in an invariable pattern. We are the “Discoverators” of 2nd Tier Being for our time.

Keywords: [“Being”,”Tier”,”2nd”]
Source: http://integralleadershipreview.com/7693-game-is-over-you-are-enlightened

The Columbian Exchange and Global Trade

Describe the Columbian Exchange, global trade, and mercantilism. The Columbia Exchange, also sometimes called the Great Exchange, was one of the most immensive global trade which involved both the West and the East in the exchange goods with each other. With the newfound settlements in America bringing wealth, trade between many distant places was stimulated, which led to the Columbian Exchange. During the Columbian exhange, a large amount of goods were being traded between the nations, which includes crops and foods such as maize, potatoes, and tomatoes, which were important in Eurasia, and many more that were new to Europe. The global transfer of goods, animals, diseases, and plants between the America, Europe, Africa, and Asia was called the Columbian Exchange. By: Michelle PelletierThe columbian exchange transported many goods, animals, slaves, plants, diseases,and ideas all the way to Eastern and Western world, in other words the columbian exchange(Europeans) brought ideas from Asia and from other parts of the world; diseases were spread to people that weren’t immune to them. This global trade of crops changed the way of life of Americas, Europe, Africa, and Asia. The mercantilism was adapted by Europe, during the time of the Columbian exchange. The Columbian exchange was the global transfer of goods, animals, and plants during the colonization of the Americas. The Columbian Exchange was the trade of animals, crops and plants globally. The ultimate widespread exchange of plants, food, ideas and slaves during the Eastern and Western territory was called the Columbian Exchange. With all these exchange with the new territory Europe began to prosper because they took all the new spicy and started to trade it globally.

Keywords: [“Europe”,”America”,”wealth”]
Source: http://cdaworldhistory.wikidot.com/the-columbian-exchange-and-global-trade

The Age of Enlightenment

The Age of Enlightenment Print The Age of Enlightenment Reading Comprehension Reading Level edHelper’s suggested reading level: grades 8 to 12 Flesch-Kincaid grade level: 8.99 Vocabulary challenging words: capitalism, best, calculus, superstition, pamphlet, clergy, optics, superstitious, telescope, philosophy, discovery, milestone, algebra, knowledge, whose, scientific content words: Sir Isaac Newton, Isaac Newton, American Revolution, French Revolution, Latin America, Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Paine, Common Sense, Jean-Jacques Rousseau 1 You could say that the modern age really began in Europe in the 1600s. Around this time, people began to ask for proof before they were willing to believe something. 2 It was called The Age of Enlightenment, and its main idea was that humans had a very important power – the ability to reason. It was believed that this ability to reason would allow people to break away from the superstitious beliefs of the past. 3 It was a radical new way of thinking for many Europeans. Now people used their own abilities to discover truths for themselves. 4 Since all humans had this ability to reason, the Enlightenment philosophy led to a new way of looking at people as well. Anyone could make important scientific discoveries, not just members of the noble class or members of the clergy. Also according to the Enlightenment philosophy, everyone has certain natural rights. 5 During this time, it was believed that the most important thing a person could do was to learn and discover more and, in this way, add to human knowledge. Important discoveries were made in science, history, and math. The Age of Enlightenment continued through the 1700s in Europe and also spread to America.

Keywords: [“Enlightenment”,”Age”,”people”]
Source: http://www.edhelper.com/ReadingComprehension_54_871.html