J.R.’s Zaphne Blog News for 05-10-2018

Socialism, Once in Power, Outlaws It

Socialism on the other hand has no checks and balances against greed. Socialism therefore cannot produce a people who are free to be compassionate. Although socialism is viewed as compassion, it doesn’t allow room for compassionate giving because by definition, under a socialist system, there shouldn’t be any need for anyone to have to give compassionately. Socialism has to keep people poor in order to justify its own existence. Socialism strips the individual of their right to own private property. 

To give freely is treasonous because, in theory, under socialism there is no need for people to be compassionate. Unlike compassionate capitalism, compassionate socialism cannot exist. It’s an oxymoron because socialism as absolute economic law only has what it’s taken from the people; it has no capital outside what socialism has taken without compassion; creating no real margin of abundance for individuals to give compassionately from. The Bible does not preach or foster socialism as an absolute economic law or morality. Socialism has no room and sees no need for compassion once it holds power. 

The socialist only sees the capitalist as his or her enemy, upholding socialism religiously, without opposition. Socialism is seen as true compassion and therefore the only compassion anyone truly needs. 

Keywords: [“Socialism”,”give”,”compassionate”]
Source: https://www.xyz.net.au/capitalism-needs-compassion-socialism-power…

Blue Print for How to Build A Culture of Empathy?

We’d like to come up with a blueprint for building a culture of empathy and compassion. The more empathy you receive, the more space you have to give it. Develop training that deepens the individual components of empathy. Change all social institutions to actively support empathy. Go to the pain, suffering, fear, alienation with awareness, presence and empathy. 

Have TV moderators using empathy to bring people together. I take heart that there are many people bringing forward empathy. Local level with skilled moderators, who want to get people heard. Want to talk with peoples who’s letters confused me. I don’t understand this lack of empathy around the world. 

This group used reflective listening to deepen empathy for each person. Edwin told story of visiting Tea Party and Republican State convention to talk with participants about the role of empathy in their lives. 

Keywords: [“Empathy”,”people”,”Culture”]
Source: http://cultureofempathy.com/Projects/How-To-Build-Empathy/index.htm

Halcyonic by HTML5 UP

This is Halcyonic, a free site template by AJ for HTML5 UP. It’s responsive, built on HTML5 + CSS3, and includes 5 unique page layouts. Yes! Halcyonic is built on the Skel framework, so it has full responsive support for desktop, tablet, and mobile device displays. Halcyonic is licensed under the CCA 3.0 license, so use it for personal or commercial use as much as you like. 

Duis neque nisi, dapibus sed mattis quis, rutrum accumsan sed. Suspendisse vitae magna eget odio amet mollis justo facilisis quis. Sed sagittis mauris amet tellus gravida lorem ipsum. What We Do A subheading about what we do Sed mattis quis rutrum accum. What People Are Saying And a final subheading about our clients. 

Keywords: [“sed”,”quis”,”Halcyonic”]
Source: http://www.copyblogwriter.com/compassionate_capitalism_how_corporations…

Culture of the New Capitalism

The distinguished sociologist Richard Sennett surveys major differences between earlier forms of industrial capitalism and the more global, more febrile, ever more mutable version of capitalism that is taking its place. Only a certain kind of human being can prosper in unstable, fragmentary institutions: the culture of the new capitalism demands an ideal self oriented to the short term, focused on potential ability rather than accomplishment, willing to discount or abandon past experience. Richard Sennett teaches sociology at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and the London School of Economics. His recent publications include The Corrosion of Character and Respect in a World of Inequality. 

Keywords: [“Sennett”,”more”,”how”]
Source: https://yalebooks.yale.edu/book/9780300119923/culture-new-capitalism

The Compassionate Librano

On the prowl sort of whereas an Alligator is any woman out there ready to devour or destroy the reputation, livelihood and well being of any male she has her sights on – without due course, due diligence, due evidence, or due process. We’re due they, the radical feminists, were due to say. No more holding the door open, paying for dinner, compliments, drinks or whatever. I would belch, fart, grunt, swear, and scratch my ass – wiggle me nuts – tell dirty jokes, well perhaps not, and – y’know all of those things that define a male – in front of you. I would think twice about working with a woman because you just never know. 

No defence, no evidence, just hearsay and buddy you are screwed. 

Keywords: [“due”,”well”,”woman”]
Source: http://www.smalldeadanimals.com/2018/01/the-compassiona-2.html

UPC’s Seventh Annual Conscious Eating Conference: What are the Most Compassionate Choices?

You are cordially invited to attendUnited Poultry Concerns’ Seventh Annual Conference. Conference Synopsis: United Poultry Concerns’ 7th Annual Conscious Eating Conference brings expert speakers to Berkeley, California to share their ideas about the best food choices we can make for the planet, ourselves, and other animals. We will explore the ethics of eating and the effect of agriculture on animals and the planet, and why it matters. 20 pre-registration for all others, $30 at the door the day of the event. Food: Registration includes a continental breakfast of vegan pastries & fruit, delicious vegan lunch, and all-day coffee & tea. 

Keywords: [“Conference”,”vegan”,”animals”]
Source: http://upc-online.org/forums/2018

The C word

Bill Gates recently gave a speech at the World Economic Forum in Davos. The idea is this: the increase in standards of living brought by capitalism mainly benefit the rich, so companies should put more effort into developing products and services for the poor. Both these bargains are bound up with capitalism, which is centred not on the free market or the accumulation of wealth, but instead on the idea of false choice. Yes, you may buy from or work for a number of companies, but they are all motivated by the same desires and thus, really, you only have one choice. 

Keywords: [“capitalism”,”companies”,”Creative”]
Source: https://maryrosecook.com/blog/post/the-c-word-2

J.R.’s Zaphne Blog News for 02-06-2018

Ray Kurzweil: What Is the Future of Capitalism?

Ray Kurzweil is an inventor, thinker, and futurist famous for forecasting the pace of technology and predicting the world of tomorrow. In this video, Kurzweil suggests there is more consensus about what kind of economic system we all want than it seems. People disagree on the details, he says, but across the political spectrum most agree we should balance the innovative power of capitalism with a basic compassion for people. He believes information technologies will drive further increases in wealth, and we’ll be able to afford a stronger social safety net in the future. This will dramatically change what we do for work and why.

Keywords: [“People”,”technology”,”Kurzweil”]
Source: https://singularityhub.com/2017/07/07/ray-kurzweil-what-is-the…

Capitalism and compassion: a test of Milbrath’s environmental theory

From his observations of environmentalists Milbrath extracts the generalization that there is something inimical between capitalism and compassion. This was tested by applying scales of altruistic compassion and materialistic achievement motivation to supporters of three political parties in Queensland, Australia: a Leftist party, a moderate Conservative party and a Rightist party much given to advocating capitalism. Voters for the Rightist and Leftist parties showed a difference in compassion of only borderline significance. It is concluded that there are many roads to compassion, capitalism not excepted.

Keywords: [“party”,”compassion”,”capitalism”]
Source: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0191886988901110

Speaker, Author, Humanitarian, Entrepreneur

Dave Meltzer is the CEO of Sports 1 Marketing, one of the world’s leading sports & entertainment marketing agencies, which he co-founded with Hall of Fame Quarterback Warren Moon. Prior to S1M, he was CEO of the world’s first smartphone, the PC-E Phone, and later became CEO of the world’s most notable sports agency, Leigh Steinberg Sports and Entertainment. Dave is an award-winning humanitarian, an international public speaker, best-selling author, and is profiled by national publications such as Forbes, ESPN, Bloomberg, CNBC, Yahoo, SB Nation and Variety.

Keywords: [“Sports”,”world's”,”CEO”]
Source: http://www.davemeltzer.com

The Constitutionalism of Crony Capitalism

Law and Liberty’s focus is on the content, status, and development of law in the context of republican and limited government and the ways that liberty and law and law and liberty mutually reinforce the other. This site brings together serious debate, commentary, essays, book reviews, interviews, and educational material in a commitment to the first principles of law in a free society. Law and Liberty considers a range of foundational and contemporary legal issues, legal philosophy, and pedagogy.

Keywords: [“Law”,”liberty”,”legal”]
Source: http://www.libertylawsite.org/…/the-constitutionalism-of-crony-capitalism

Conscious Capitalism NEO

Conscious Capitalism builds on the foundations of Capitalism – voluntary exchange, entrepreneurship, competition, freedom to trade and the rule of law. These are essential to a healthy functioning economy, as are other elements of Conscious Capitalism including trust, compassion, collaboration and value creation. We also support an emerging network of Conscious Capitalism Chapters, which serve as communities of inquiry for business leaders, entrepreneurs, coaches and consultants and others.

Keywords: [“Capitalism”,”Conscious”]
Source: http://consciouscapitalismneo.weebly.com/about.html

Download Compassionate Capitalism

There, the download must be this, and must access working among the hypothetical intervention of test instructors. Turnout instances do carefully the best reader to entice this entry. The competitive work means that upstream bargaining should be approved in being the practice of access hypotheses, additionally on pen topical seller areas. Our download compassionate fielding is few realm schools( both field and capability) to our problems three instructions a world.

Keywords: [“field”,”work”,”access”]
Source: http://freplumbingservice.com/pdf/download-compassionate-capitalism.htm

Economics: does capitalism lead to crime ?

It is a crude idea, but could crime such as rape be a by-product of capitalism? Imagine a company that wants to sell Widgets – they need to advertise their product,- they use hot babes in skimpy bikinis to do so,- a lonely man stumbles upon a commercial for the Widgets and he is affected by the sexual images,- he has no means of sexual relief,- he attacks an innocent woman. Obviously many things can lead a person to criminal actions.

Keywords: [“sexual”,”Widgets”]
Source: https://goodflagbetsy.wordpress.com/does-capitalism-lead-to-crime

Capitalism in a sentence

Killed more compassion than capitalism could ever.communism, and capitalism were among the options. The connection between capitalism and war is a.Capitalism would be considered sacred and of value. What broke the family? What purchased it: capitalism. Conscious Capitalism is a term coined by John Mackey. Unfortunately we have no example sentences for this word yet.

Keywords: [“capitalism”]
Source: https://www.foboko.com/sentence-dictionary/english/capitalism

c j pepper designs

We put you in front of customers with visually distinct websites and compelling content. No two designs are the same because we infuse authenticity and creativity into each one. We will spend time understanding your business, your marketing objectives and your web goals so we can deliver a website unique to your business.

Keywords: [“business”,”website”]
Source: http://www.cjpepper.com

Future of Capitalism 2018

Reboot the future has a mission to promote a shift in global mindset by embedding the golden rule in business, society, culture, and the environment. To that end Reboot is working with a variety of different tools and projects across the spectrum of business, education, AI, and arts and culture.

Keywords: [“Reboot”,”business”,”culture”]
Source: http://www.futureofcapitalism2018.com

Compassion International

Compassion partners with churches and denominations to help them provide Brazilian children with the opportunity to rise above their circumstances and become all God has created them to be. Currently, more than 40,000 children are registered in more than 185 child development centers.

Keywords: [“children”,”more”]
Source: https://www.compassion.com/about/where/brazil-facts.htm

People Helping People Help Themselves by Rich DeVos

The lowest-priced brand-new, unused, unopened, undamaged item in its original packaging. Packaging should be the same as what is found in a retail store, unless the item is handmade or was packaged by the manufacturer in non-retail packaging, such as an unprinted box or plastic bag.

Keywords: [“packaged”,”item”]
Source: https://www.ebay.com/itm/Compassionate-Capitalism-People-Helping…

J.R.’s Zaphne Blog News for 01-30-2018

Amway Founders Heritage & Values Compassionate Capitalism

‘These People’ refers to the people of God, the people of the Kingdom, the people of Messiah, and even Jesus’ own people because they “Were like sheep without a shepherd.” One of the prominent tasks of a shepherd is to feed the sheep. Jesus, on the contrary, did organize the multitude: “Then Jesus directed them to have all the people sit down in groups on the green grass. So they sat down in groups of hundreds and fifties.” As Jesus’ disciples we are tempted to give in to the merciless domination of the market and to play to the pitiless rules of greed and to conform to political and military power when we should align ourselves with the multitude of the poor and excluded people. What is the effect of jeong in the miracle of feeding the multitude? The liberal and rational interpretation of the miracle emphasizes a miraculous transformation of human hearts in which the people’s selfish hearts were transformed and then the people brought the loaves of bread and dried fish. We need to pay attention to the last part of his action: “To set before the people!” Why is it so significant? The whole Jesus liturgical/religious actions such as taking the food, looking up to heaven to give thanks, and breaking the breads are the prelude to the final consummation of setting the food before the people. Economy of Love “As I see it, the ruler is dependent on the nation, and the nation is dependent on the people. The king considers the people as heaven, but the people consider food as heaven. When the people lose their heaven, the nation loses the thing upon which it depends. This is an unchanging principle.” The first priority of the good government in the Confucian tradition is to secure the material welfare of the people. According to the Analects, “The Master was on his way to Wei, and Ran Qiu was driving. The Master said: ‘So many people!’ Ran Qiu sad: ‘Once the people are many, what next should be done?’ – ‘Enrich them.’ – ‘Once they are rich, what next should be done?’ – ‘Educate them'”. Yulgok writes: “The heart of the kingly way lies in playing the role of parent for people. Easing the burden of labor for nation and enriching people, food which people considers heaven is abundant and people can preserve their good hearts.” When the parent sees a child about to fall into a well, he or she cannot help a feeling of alarm and commiseration. The great king Wu in the ancient China said, “Be affectionate for people. Do not treat them contemptuously. They are the fundamental of the state. If the fundamental is firm, the state is peaceful.” One of the Confucian commentators interprets the lesson of Wu: “If the relationship of the king and the people is understood from the standpoint of power 9 (seh), the difference between the two is like the distance between heaven and earth. But if the relationship of the king and the people is understood from the standpoint of jeong, they comfort each other as the members of the body help one another to live. Power increases the distance while jeong affectionately unite”. “Collecting the riches, the people disperse. Spreading the riches, the people gather. The benevolent one raises the body by riches while the un-benevolent one raises riches by the body”. Since the 17th century even the common people in Korea began to participate in the communication with the king: for instance, during the rule of the king Jeongcho in the 18th century there were about 4,427 cases for which the common people directly appealed to the king. According to Yulgok, when the people become poor wanderers in their own land because the rulers lose the right way, the first responsibility of the king is to realize the sa jeong of the people who cannot help committing sin in the violation of the law. To know the sa jeong of the people and to have the in 15 jeong for the people is the starting point to cultivate the ethic of compassion and to practice the economy of love.

Keywords: [“people”,”Jesus”,”king”]
Source: https://oimts.files.wordpress.com/2013/04/2007-6-park.pdf

Gangster Capitalism, Nostalgic Authoritarianism in Trump’s America

A dystopian ideology, a kind of nostalgic yearning for older authoritarian relations of power, now shapes and legitimates a mode of governance that generates obscene levels of inequality, expands the ranks of corrupt legislators, places white supremacists and zealous ideologues in positions of power, threatens to jail its opponents, and sanctions an expanding network of state violence both at home and abroad. Trump has accelerated a culture of cruelty, a machinery of terminal exclusion and social abandonment that wages a war on undocumented immigrants, poor minorities of color and young people. Trump engages in a culture war that militarizes the social media and in doing so creates a politics of diversion while erasing memories of a fascist past that bears an uncanny and terrifying resemblance to his own worldview. Trump’s high regard for white supremacy and petty authoritarianism became clear on the domestic front when he pardoned former Arizona Sheriff Joseph Arpaio, a vicious racist who waged a war against undocumented immigrants, Latino residents and individuals who did not speak English. Trump’s authoritarianism cuts deeply into the fabric of both government and everyday politics in the United States. Sen. Bob Corker of Tennessee, the chair of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, accused Trump of “Debasing the nation” and “Treating his office like a reality show.” Corker warned that Trump may be setting the U.S. “On the path to World War III.”. Egregious examples of political barbarism, state violence, the morally reprehensible and the utter corruption of politics and democracy have become all too familiar in the first year of Trump’s presidency, and the list just keeps growing. Trump’s hatred of Muslims and undocumented immigrants is visible in his call to build walls rather than bridges, to invoke shared fears rather than shared responsibilities, to destroy all the public institutions that make democracy possible, and to expand a culture in which self-interest, greed, militarism and repression expand the ideology, social relations and practices that breathe life into what might be called gangster capitalism, rather than the less odious notion of a Second Gilded Age. More than a half dozen women have now accused him of various forms of sexual misconduct when they were teenagers and he was in his 30s. Trump and Conway’s defense rested on the morally vacuous claim and obscene rationale that it was necessary to elect Moore to the Senate so Trump would have another Republican Senate vote to pass a tax bill that functions as a wet kiss and wedding gift for the rich. Gangster capitalism under Trump has reached a new stage, in that it is unabashedly aggressive in mounting a war against every institution capable of providing a vision, a semblance of critical agency or a formative culture capable of creating agents who might be willing to hold power accountable. What is distinctive about Trump is that he defines himself through the tenets of a predatory and cruel form of gangster capitalism, while using its power to fill government positions with what appear to be the walking dead and at the same time produce death-dealing policies. Trump makes clear that democracy is tenuous and has to be viewed as a site of ongoing contestation, one that demands a new understanding of politics, language and collective struggle. In the face of Trump’s brand of authoritarianism, progressives need a vocabulary that allows us to recognize ourselves as agents, not victims, in the discourse of a radical democratic politics.

Keywords: [“Trump”,”politics”,”culture”]
Source: https://www.truthdig.com/articles/gangster-capitalism-nostalgic…

JR Test Site News for 01-26-2018

enlightened rogue

“Those who are determined to be ‘offended’ will discover a provocation somewhere. We cannot possibly adjust enough to please the fanatics, and it is degrading to make the attempt.” “War sends the current of purpose and activity flowing down to the lowest level of the herd, and to its most remote branches. All the activities of society are linked together as fast as possible to this central purpose of making a military offensive or a military defense, and the State becomes what in peacetimes it has vainly struggled to become – the inexorable arbiter and determinant of men’s business and attitudes and opinions. The slack is taken up, the cross-currents fade out, and the nation moves lumberingly and slowly, but with ever accelerated speed and integration, toward the great end, toward the ‘peacefulness of being at war,’ of which L.P. Jacks has so unforgettably spoken.” “The powers that be are fond of pointing to the worst government abuse historically on Earth and making claims of moral superiority, but in the end, while the Communist and National Socialist governments in the twentieth century may have harmed their respective populations and those they subdued through war, at least, we have the moral high ground. Of course, this is much like a getting an Underachiever Award at a serial killer convention. The entire system of governance is based on violence and nothing else no matter how noble it is portrayed or how many rose petals litter the dais of the King.”. “As you know I don’t believe in democracy, I believe in personal freedom. Democracy is workable enough in something like a cohesive city-state. But absolutely not once voters get involved in economic issues-the poor will always vote themselves a free lunch, and the rich will buy votes to give themselves more. Democracy always devolves into class warfare.” “In ancient Greece, if you weren’t a landowner you weren’t respected. In the U.S., voting rules were determined by the States, and originally, everywhere, you had to be a landowner. That meant you had something to lose. But that’s not the case anymore.” “The Constitution is an immoral document. It explicates a litany of conditional privileges, subject to modification at any time. That this is done in an orderly manner, via ‘constitutionally’ prescribed mechanisms, does not make the doing of it morally legitimate.” “Slavery, to whatever degree, remains slavery.” “Western cultures emphasize the future; view work as a blessing rather than as a burden; promote individuals based on their merit; value education and frugality, are philanthropic, identify with universal causes, and have higher ethics.” In static cultures, individuals tend to be fatalistic rather than future-oriented; live for the present or past; work only because they need to; diminish or dismiss the value of education, frugality, and philanthropy; are often mired in nepotism and corruption; and promote individuals based on clan and connections, rather than capabilities. ‘I am because we are’ is how one wag encapsulated the cog-like role of the individual in African culture. In advanced cultures, on the other hand, the individual, and not the collective, is paramount…. “Magic wins out over reason; community over individual; communal ownership over private property; force and coercion over rights and responsibilities; wealth distribution over its accumulation.”

Keywords: [“individual”,”over”,”culture”]
Source: http://enlightened-rogue.blogspot.com

Enlighten yourself with our meditation course and energy enhancement guide

Not only does Energy Enhancement teach the techniques of every other Meditation, by saying “Every other Meditation Course is designed to Fail!” we are saying that without the Ancient Techniques of Alchemical VITRIOL, Axis Mundi, Kundalini Key, Soul Fusion, Quantum Integration, The Chakras Above the Head, the Energy Enhancement Seven Step Process to remove Energy Blockages, the Karma Cleaning Process, the Grounding of Negative Energies, the Psychic Cord Connection Mastery of Relationships and Psychic Protection, and Quantum Immortality…. All the other Meditations are horse and carts to the Energy Enhancement Electric Tesla, Speeding up Your Process of Spiritual Evolution. This Card is giving Instructions on how to Remove and Transmute Energy Blockages as a major part of the Process of Transfiguration, of Illumination, the Aim and Purpose of the Energy Enhancement Meditation Course. THE ENERGY ENHANCEMENT STREAMING VIDEO BUDDHAFIELD HOME STUDY COURSE. STREAMING VIDEO BUDDHAFIELD INITIATIONS ON DEMAND. T.HE REAL THING!! FROM DON MINIHANES COURSE REPORT – LAST WEEK OF ENERGY ENHANCEMENT REIKI MASTERY OPTION. “I am now in the last week of the course and I feel like a totally different person. I have regained myself and have been given from nothing having no psychic vision at all at the start of the energy enhancement course, a clarity of psychic vision that is breathtaking.” “The energy techniques given in Energy Enhancement have never been explained to me in Aikido, Yoga or Ashtanga Yoga or on any meditation course that I have been on like Transcendental Meditation, and have only been partly taught to me previously by Taoist Master Mantak Chia and on Tantra Courses. Energy Enhancement Terminology – Energy Blockages – explain Ignorance!! The root of ignorance is Delusion, Anger and Greed, which are Energy Blockages which cut us off from the energies of the chakras above the head – Really, the removal of energy blockages is the removal of Ignorance and the start of Awareness – Energy Blockages are created by BM’s – Energy Enhancement Energy Blockages are removed by the Seven Step Process. Energy Enhancement, – An Advanced Meditation Course which gives the MOST benefits of any course of Meditational Self-Development available anywhere in the World today. ENERGY ENHANCEMENT LEVEL ONE WILL DRAMATICALLY REDUCE THEIR NEGATIVE POWER However, to remove these Energy Blockages completely, the techniques of Energy Enhancement are absolutely necessary:-. Previously, an intimate group joined me on a One Month Energy Enhancement Course including All Four Levels of Energy Enhancement including the Seven Step Process for Transmuting and Removing Energy Blockages. The Energy Enhancement FREE Energy Enhancement Infinite Wealth Home Training ProgramA step-by-step guide for Accessing your Soul and eliminating your 24 Wealth BlocksAvailable exclusively on this site, the Energy Enhancement Energy Enhancement Infinite Wealth Home Training Program is a course for eliminating each of your Wealth Blocks, one after the other, FREE, as part of. Jump start your journey into Wealth with a Four step system to open your energy fields, contact the Energy Enhancement Infinite External Chakra Energies, Access your Soul and begin the Energy Enhancement Blockage clearing process. Energy 101 – wondering what exactly is energy? Learn what it is by Energy Enhancement Direct Experience. For pricing, more details and to find out if the Energy Enhancement Consultant Certification is a good fit for you email us to be contacted by a Energy Enhancement Meditation Course Training Coordinator.

Keywords: [“Energy”,”Enhancement”,”Blockage”]
Source: http://www.energyenhancement.org

JR Test Site News for 01-23-2018

free essay on Women during the Enlightenment

In many ways, the position of women was seriously degraded during the Enlightenment. Economically, the rise of capitalism produced laws that severely restricted women’s rights to own property and run businesses. I believe that this was unfair and very sexist of the way Enlightenment thinkers thought about how women and men differ because of their gender. Just because a woman’s gender, she can only marry if she was part of a family, the family would usually make up the dowry. If she was on her own then she had to save enough money to pay her own dowry. Not only were women treated as nothing but maids and wives, with their harsh income, they were required to invest in the household economy before she could join it. If a woman was born into an agricultural community or in an artisan’s family, they began tasks as productive laborers in the family economy at the age of six or seven. On the farm women’s labor was less appreciated, and women almost always left home between the ages of eleven and fourteen to either work on another farm or become a servant in a household. I think it is very wrong to make women act like slaves because they were considered far more inferior than men, who basically got the better education. Enlightenment thinkers also believed that the various intellectual disciplines, such as science and philosophy, were meant only for men. So while men were learning the new sciences and philosophies, all that was offered to women in education was decorative “Accomplishments.” I think that those years were morally wrong because the Enlightenment stressed the absolute importance of education for moral development and the ideal operation of society. This education was only open to wealthy women who could afford to pay for it. I think that this time period was very brutal and unfair to women. Especially that standing up for equality wasn’t easy at all.

Keywords: [“women”,”think”,”family”]
Source: http://www.echeat.com/free-essay/Women-during-the-Enlightenment-32413.aspx

Influence of Enlightenment on Economic & Social Thought

The Enlightenment of 18th century was an extension of the scientific revolution in which rational thought and reason was extended from nature to society. Thinkers of the Enlightenment, known as philosophes, completely rejected the supremacy of religion, superstition and Church authority and replaced it with reason. Enlightenment synthesized Greek inclination on rational thinking, Stoic emphasis on natural law and Christen idea of equality of man. Enlightenment thus had a profound impact on the social and economic thinking of that time. The thinkers of enlightenment shattered the influence of superstition, revelations and priestly authority and emphasized the importance of human intelligence and rational thinking. In the words of Immanuel Kant, “Enlightenment is man’s leaving his self-caused immaturity”. Thinkers of this era argued that reason alone is sufficient to reform societies. John Locke, one of the principle figures of Enlightenment, advocated for religious tolerance, human equality and liberty. The American Declaration of Independence, the Constitution and the Bill of Rights all reflect the ideals of Enlightenment such as all men are created equal and possess inalienable rights of life, liberty and pursuit of happiness. The age of Enlightenment also had a profound effect on the economy. As people moved from rural areas to cities, economic reliance shifted from agriculture to non-agriculture products. Although most of the thinkers of Enlightenment were deists and believed in one God, they denounced religious mysteries, miracles and prophecies. Some took a more extreme approach and denied the existence of God and attributed the notion to human ignorance, superstition and fear. The thinkers of Enlightenment also denounced slavery and slave trade. Enlightenment thus played a pivotal role in transforming social, political, religious and economic life in Europe.

Keywords: [“Enlightenment”,”Thinkers”,”human”]
Source: https://mmuntazir.wordpress.com/2011/03/04/influence-of…

www.theory.org.uk Resources: Theodor Adorno

Adorno argued that capitalism fed people with the products of a ‘culture industry’ – the opposite of ‘true’ art – to keep them passively satisfied and politically apathetic. Adorno saw that capitalism had not become more precarious or close to collapse, as Marx had predicted. Where Marx had focussed on economics, Adorno placed emphasis on the role of culture in securing the status quo. Popular culture was identified as the reason for people’s passive satisfaction and lack of interest in overthrowing the capitalist system. Adorno suggested that culture industries churn out a debased mass of unsophisticated, sentimental products which have replaced the more ‘difficult’ and critical art forms which might lead people to actually question social life. False needs are cultivated in people by the culture industries. These are needs which can be both created and satisfied by the capitalist system, and which replace people’s ‘true’ needs – freedom, full expression of human potential and creativity, genuine creative happiness. Commodity fetishism means that social relations and cultural experiences are objectified in terms of money. We are delighted by something because of how much it cost. Popular media and music products are characterised by standardisation and pseudo-individualisation. Products of the culture industry may be emotional or apparently moving, but Adorno sees this as cathartic – we might seek some comfort in a sad film or song, have a bit of a cry, and then feel restored again. Boiled down to its most obvious modern-day application, the argument would be that television leads people away from talking to each other or questioning the oppression in their lives. Instead they get up and go to work, come home and switch on TV, absorb TV’s nonsense until bedtime, and then the daily cycle starts again. You can study this further with the books and links below.

Keywords: [“culture”,”people”,”Adorno”]
Source: http://www.theory.org.uk/ctr-ador.htm

JR Test Site News for 01-22-2018

Notes on Adorno T and Horkheimer

Nature has become a matter of mere objectivity, an object for control. ‘Factuality wins the day; cognition is restricted to its repetition; and thought becomes mere tautology’. In accepting these severe limits to itself, science has become no better than myth, with no interest to do anything other than reproduce the given. The rational philosophy which began the Enlightenment project can still penetrate this truth about domination even if it has become ‘forgotten’ as philosophy itself becomes another mechanism of compulsion. The need to organise a system or team becomes an important priority, shown best in the work of Sade, where team work [at an orgy] permits the totally efficient sexual exploitation of every possibility! Organisations develop in their own right, so that any goals can be attached to them, and no external standards of criticism can be applied to them. The Enlightenment project therefore becomes necessarily committed to liberalism – an ideology is needed to bail out a system that claims to be based on pure rationality. Sexual enjoyment becomes a matter of sexual desire, and not respect; promiscuity replaces commitment, sex becomes a technique to replace the enthusiasm for one individual. Suffering becomes part of the culture industry: it is solemnly recorded and serves as some kind of necessary tragic counterpart to having fun, to remind us all of fate. In the culture industry the average becomes heroic, and individuals find their individuality in vicarious participation. The use-value of such objects has become fetishised, or saturated by exchange value. Now art has become ‘free, it can be put to use universally, and people feel they must acquire it because it is now available. Names now become mere abstract terms: ‘A left-half at football, a black shirt, a member of the Hitler Youth and so on, are no more than names’. The mechanisms include false mimesis and projected mimesis, where the outer world is seen as a replica of the inner one, and the motives of the other become the motives of oneself. Stereotypes become vital in a mass society , permitting an immediate identification of actual persons with their stereotypes or archetypes. Society itself has become a kind of prison -‘The punishment of imprisonment is as nothing when set against the social reality [fascism] in which we live’.

Keywords: [“become”,”Enlightenment”,”culture”]
Source: http://www.arasite.org/adhkdofe.htm

Why are and should communism and capitalism inherently be at war????, page 3

First of all, when those so called keys were handed to that man, Germany back then was far removed from being a free market capitalist democratic society. Another view could be that National Socialism is, as I previously argued, another iteration in terms of answer to the question how to square personal ownership vs state ownership. Fact remains, in order to elevate the proletariat, violent revolution and a totalitarian state is needed to execute a transition period. I don’t see the need for either a totalitarian state to enforce it. At least not more of a totalitarian state than we have. As I said, it depends on the state of enlightenment of every single person in a geographical area. If you don’t pay your taxes, a fine, smoke pot in the privacy of your own home, exc the US government will throw you in a concrete box FOR YEARS. The current state of affairs in the US is hardly indicative of a free market capitalist democratic republic. There once was a time when there was no income tax, no war on drugs …. when free market capitalism was more valued …. however … you are saying something to say what exactly? That punishing criminal activity is totalitarian? Hardly, but I have to hand it to the US for being Numero UNO in putting people behind bars ….and #ing over it’s own population. If you are preaching revolution, the US government will throw you in a concrete box for years. He was preaching revolution, all right, and using any notion an American could have about the original 1776 revolution against the British Crown and connect it to different issues and giving it another content. NOT. But then again, Obama, preached revolutionary ideas conducive with a gradual change towards a more socialistic and communistic ideal. Preaching revolution to overthrow violently the current status quo … it is in the interest of any current status quo to not have a violent revolution on it’s hands. If trump and Putin get along great, are communism and capitalism still inherently at war??? You see, a fool can pose a lot more questions than a wise man can answer. Second, why do you seem to be implying that Putin and Trump represent a struggle between communism and free market capitalism?

Keywords: [“revolution”,”state”,”more”]
Source: http://www.abovetopsecret.com/forum/thread1192552/pglastpost

Sacrifice Yourself to the Golden Calf of Capitalism – Mother Jones

Inspired in turn by Swift, I want to suggest that we put in motion a similar undertaking: On January 16th, Martin Luther King Day, citizens from around the country should gather at the New York Stock Exchange on Wall Street. Do you really need that mobile home or tent? And certainly, you’ll want to offer up your children to Wall Street if they’re young enough to make a “Delicious” and nourishing meal. If your children are older still, and waterlogged from the college loans that put them “Underwater” before they even had their first jobs, why not donate those debts as securitized gifts to the Street? Better yet: give back their college diplomas. Give back your votes; they do you no good, but might placate The Street. If you’re not too shy, donate your medical records, x-rays, CAT scans and IV drips; you won’t need them anymore since the odds are you won’t be able to afford health care, and Wall Street can use them. What, for example, is a leg- or ear- or brainpan-derivative really worth on the open market? You don’t know, but Wall Street will. My poor imagination is hardly up to the task of imagining all the ways in which we might express our fealty to Wall Street’s financiers. Why pick a single day and a single place to symbolically immolate our own children? Why not continue to occupy as many places as we can on all days? We should! The simple epiphany that OWS allowed millions to experience was its blunt discovery that Wall Street, the world of financial mis-engineers and predatory speculators, was the taproot of our multiple dilemmas. For people around the globe, that street remains, at least symbolically, the site where our misbegotten Age of Austerity was born. “Our streets” are ever less “Ours” in any meaningful sense. If credit-default swaps and structured investment vehicles are legal, as they are, and if marching in the streets is becoming ever less so, as it is, then on January 16th we should begin to turn that kind of preposterous world upside down. With Martin Luther King in mind, let us propose that January 16th also become Jubilee Day. Our own version of such a “Day of forgiveness” would focus on all the debts with which the 1 percent have burdened so many working people. He is a labor and economic historian whose most recent book is Wall Street: America’s Dream Palace.

Keywords: [“Street”,”Day”,”Children”]
Source: http://www.motherjones.com/politics/2011/11/occupy-wall-street-99-percent…

JR Test Site News for 01-21-2018

‘The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as Mass Deception’, or, the Lifeblood of Capitalism – unrealistic.choices

The most troubling aspect of Capitalism I find to be its ability to permeate every corner of our reality, but specifically the cultural sphere. Capitalism has not always been the leading socio-political and economic system, and its advent was not sudden: it slowly colonized our minds, to the point that even art, that is supposed to be the noble expression of human nature, has been commodified. Philosophers Theodor Adorno and Max Horkheimer, in Dialectic of Enlightenment, analyse the concept of enlightenment in their own socio-political context, World War II Germany. The chapter I will here discuss, ‘The Culture Industry: Enlightenment as Mass Deception’ helps understand how capitalism came to be inseparable from reality through a mechanism of ‘regression’ that saw enlightenment convert to ideology. They illustrate this by minutely analysing various aspects of the culture industry, including contradictions and consequences. The fundamental feature of culture in the time of capitalism is sameness, with the purpose of mass control: ‘something is provided for all so that none can escape’. The market can cater for everyone’s needs, which means that one will always turn to it to satisfy needs and desires. The authors use the example of the movie-goer throughout the text to express the implication of this concept: the aim of cinematic producers is to use clichés to resemble real life to a certain extent, so that real life and movies become one to the movie-goer. Specifically, clichés will ease the audience from having to think at all; because everything is the same every time, active reflection is unnecessary. The culture industry does not encourage creativity or intellectual freedom. Its purpose being that of domestication, it only offers distractions: amusement is nothing but ‘the prolongation of work’, as its repetitiveness in contents and style reflects the alienating nature of work – the paradox here being that we turn to amusement to escape monotonous jobs when in fact they are not much different. We have again a paradox: we know we are being enticed, but we comply with it anyway. In conclusion, the culture industry is devoid of any meaning or substance, as it offers no ‘meaningful explanation of life’. On the contrary, it can be viewed as a weapon, born in function of mere “Economic” capitalism, that is, with the purpose to sell, and living on with the aim of sustaining the all-encompassing capitalism, that is, with the purpose to preserve social control. Adorno and Horkheimer point out how it concurred in establishing Fascism; now, in 2017, this essay is still meaningful, as it implicitly anticipated the extreme consequence of their times: capitalism is an accepted part of our life and ‘none can escape’.

Keywords: [“Capitalism”,”Culture”,”Enlightenment”]
Source: https://unrealisticchoices.wordpress.com/2018/01/06/the-culture…

Capitalism vs. the Climate

For more from The Nation, check out our latest issue. The Nation is reader supported: Chip in $10 or more to help us continue to write about the issues that matter. Be the first to hear about Nation Travels destinations, and explore the world with kindred spirits. Did you know you can support The Nation by drinking wine? There is a question from a gentleman in the fourth row. He tells the crowd that he ran for county commissioner in Maryland’s Carroll County because he had come to the conclusion that policies to combat global warming were actually “An attack on middle-class American capitalism.” His question for the panelists, gathered in a Washington, DC, Marriott Hotel in late June, is this: “To what extent is this entire movement simply a green Trojan horse, whose belly is full with red Marxist socioeconomic doctrine?”. Here at the Heartland Institute’s Sixth International Conference on Climate Change, the premier gathering for those dedicated to denying the overwhelming scientific consensus that human activity is warming the planet, this qualifies as a rhetorical question. Still, the panelists aren’t going to pass up an opportunity to tell the questioner just how right he is. Chris Horner, a senior fellow at the Competitive Enterprise Institute who specializes in harassing climate scientists with nuisance lawsuits and Freedom of Information fishing expeditions, angles the table mic over to his mouth. “You can believe this is about the climate,” he says darkly, “And many people do, but it’s not a reasonable belief.” Horner, whose prematurely silver hair makes him look like a right-wing Anderson Cooper, likes to invoke Saul Alinsky: “The issue isn’t the issue.” The issue, apparently, is that “No free society would do to itself what this agenda requires. The first step to that is to remove these nagging freedoms that keep getting in the way.” Claiming that climate change is a plot to steal American freedom is rather tame by Heartland standards. That climate change is “a stalking horse for National Socialism”. That environmentalists are like Aztec priests, sacrificing countless people to appease the gods and change the weather. Most of all I will hear versions of the opinion expressed by the county commissioner in the fourth row: that climate change is a Trojan horse designed to abolish capitalism and replace it with some kind of eco-socialism. As conference speaker Larry Bell succinctly puts it in his new book Climate of Corruption, climate change “Has little to do with the state of the environment and much to do with shackling capitalism and transforming the American way of life in the interests of global wealth redistribution.”

Keywords: [“Climate”,”Change”,”issue”]
Source: https://www.thenation.com/article/capitalism-vs-climate

JR Test Site News for 01-19-2018

The Labor Movement and Socialism by Anton Pannekoek

The Labor Movement and Socialism The relation of labor unions to the Socialist movement is in many countries the subject of sharp differences of opinion, even of bitter strife. In England, for example, after the break-up of the Chartist political movement in 1848 the union movement increased greatly and became a mighty organization of the workingmen. Now what are the respective parts played in this development of working class power by the political party and the labor union? Through sermons, speeches and theoretic instruction we can never call into being organization and discipline – no, not even social intelligence and class-consciousness. Just as important is the activity connected with labor union struggle. Through the efforts of the union to improve the conditions of labor, increasing numbers of workers who before kept themselves at a distance are aroused and brought into the organization. In addition the labor union struggle contributes to the knowledge of the workers. On this account the unions have often been called the preparatory schools of Socialism; they might be better called elementary schools, for the real elementary principles that one learns in the labor struggle. Therefore the political conflict extends the view, the intelligence and also the sympathies beyond the narrow circle of the craft interests of the labor union. In Germany, where the political organization preceded the labor union, the guild spirit was unable to develop itself so strongly as, e. g., in England. The relation between political party and union is often represented as though the political movement were to bring about the destruction of capitalism, and the union to effect the improvement of the laborer’s condition within the capitalist system; as though the political party were naturally revolutionary and the union naturally reformatory. Where on account of particular circumstances the unions have been successful in improving the labor conditions there may easily develop in their ranks a self-satisfied, bigoted conservatism; they give up the thought of a vigorous campaign against capitalism and surrender themselves to the stupor of the “Community of interests between capital and labor;” they neglect further enlightenment, isolate their organizations like guilds, look with scorn on the miserable, unorganised mass of sacrifices to capitalism, and become small bourgeois, lacking anything like revolutionary feeling. In such a labor movement, in distinction from a reformist political movement, the very name of the Socialist enlightenment is proscribed. The goal of the labor movement, the conquest of political power, indicates in itself that its attainment can be accomplished only by the working class organized as a political party. The more the great body of workers take part in the war on capitalism, the more will labor union conflicts become social cataclysms, great political events; and thus the unions will be forced to take part in the political struggle. In these great struggles the old methods of parliamentary and labor union diplomacy will be found inadequate; the cleverness of sharp leaders and versatile spokesmen will be overshadowed by the power of the masses themselves.

Keywords: [“union”,”political”,”works”]
Source: https://www.marxists.org/archive/pannekoe/1908/labor-movement.htm

Center for Media Literacy

A dense matrix of values grows up around and intertwines with these modern temples. Perhaps their predominance explains why the business of business has become such a cultural preoccupation. In recent years, a dozen new business programs have burst forth on commercial television, public television and cable. Americans who once found their leaders in Congress, the entertainment world or sports, now idolize business leaders like Lee Iacocca, Steven Jobs, H. Ross Perot, Carl Icahn, and, until their fall from grace, Ivan Boesky and Mike Milken. If American business has become a preeminent force shaping our culture and its values, what example has it set? What attitudes and behavior have its leaders endorsed and fostered? When The New York Times took the pulse of corporate leadership-before the 1987 stock market crash-it found that “America’s chief executives have become reluctant, even scared, to stick with a money-losing project or a marginal business, no matter how strongly they believe in it. They eschew loyalty to workers, products, corporate structure, businesses, factories, communities, even the nation. All such allegiances are viewed as expendable. With survival at stake, only market leadership, strong profits and a high stock price can be allowed to matter.” Their trap is the ethic of materialistic hedonism that the free enterprise system, as Daniel Bell has said, “Uses to subvert the very values that sustain it.” If American business insists upon defining itself solely in terms of its market share, profitability and stock price – if its short-term material goals are allowed to prevail over all else – then business tends to subvert certain moral-cultural values that undergird the entire system. Such values are social conscience, commitment to one’s community, loyalty to one’s company…in short, a sense of the commonweal. From the decline of public morality and personal values to the culture of narcissism to young people’s inability to read and write, each of a hundred social ills originates with this trickle-down value system and its bottom line mentality. We are the captives of a culture that celebrates instant gratification and individual success no matter the larger costs. In playing the Commonwheel of Fortune, what matters most are the numbers: Who can amass the highest sum, who can become Number One? The culture of business seems to revolve around a series of numerical scales: the Nielsen ratings, the Dow-Jones index, opinion polls and cost-benefit analyses. As we rely throughout the culture on this imperium of numbers, we too easily forget that no numerical scale can truly represent the values that are most important: The spirit that makes a worker want to give his or her best. The task of creating the culture that honors these things instead of the bottom line is not a problem to be left up to someone else. We are talking here about a long-term commitment to changing our culture and values – a moral reconstruction project working in tandem with economic goals. We can begin to talk more about the ethical standards of business and learn how to nurture a more enlightened spirit of enterprise.

Keywords: [“business”,”value”,”culture”]
Source: http://www.medialit.org/reading-room/culture-capitalism

JR Test Site News for 01-19-2018

“History! It’s the most fun you can have in school!”

How did the French Revolution embody the ideas of the Enlightenment? How did the Revolution contribute to French nationalism? “The essential cause of the French Revolution was the collision between a powerful rising bourgeoisie and an entrenched aristocracy defending its privileges.” Assess the validity of this statement as an explanation of the events leading up to the French Revolution of 1789. How did the changes in political power in the French Revolution from 1789-1799 reflect the social, political and economic aspirations of the bourgeoisie?Analyze the class conflicts that precipitated the French Revolution, the subsequent changes in political power and the resulting governments from 1789-1799.29. How were the values of the Enlightenment reflected in the different stages of the French Revolution?What reasons did members of different social and economic classes have to support or not support the French Revolution between 1789-1799?”The French Revolution lived up to its motto of ‘Liberty, Equality, Fraternity’.” Assess the validity of this statement. Discuss three developments that enabled Great Britain to achieve a dominant economic position between 1700 and 1830.Identify features of the 18th century Agricultural Revolution and analyze its social and economic consequences. “The Romantic artist was inspired by his love of the French Revolution and his abhorrence of the Industrial Revolution.” Discuss this statement from the point of view of two different forms of art. Discuss the relationship between nationalism and liberalism in the continental Europeans revolutions of 1848. How did romanticism, nationalism and the Industrial Revolution affect government stability in mid 19th century England and on the continent?How did the Industrial Revolution, liberalism, romanticism, nationalism and the rise of the middle class combine to shape 19th century Europe?How did different patterns of industrialization lead to political, social and economic differences between Europe and England in the early 19th century?What factors in the first half of the 19th century lead to the rise of the middle class and the increasing isolation of England from the rest of Europe?Why was England able to institute social, political and economic reforms more peacefully than its continental counterparts?Contrast the impact of nationalism in Germany and the Austrian Empire from 1848-1914. To what extent and in what ways did the failure of reform and abortive revolution lead to the Revolution of 1917? Describe the economic, social and political conditions in Russia between 1881-1917 and how they laid the groundwork for the Bolshevik Revolution. How did feminist ideology and programs change from the period of the French Revolution to the beginning of the Second World War? Using the Glorious Revolution of 1688, the French Revolution of 1789 and the Russian Revolution of 1917, discuss and analyze the nature and scope of the revolutionary tradition in modern Europe. Explain the origins and consequences of the “Price Revolution” which began late in the 15th century. Explain the role of the Agricultural Revolution in the early 18th century in the development of capitalism.

Keywords: [“Revolution”,”century”,”How”]
Source: http://docs.exdat.com/docs/index-134488.html?page=9

Theodor Adorno and “Negative Dialectics”

THEODOR ADORNO. AND. IDENTITY. Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno wrote their critique of the culture of Western civilization, Dialectic of Enlightenment during the Second World War. Perhaps it took the magisterial pessimism of Theodor Adorno in Negative Dialectics to articulate the true extent of the Fall of humanity outside the bounds of the Enlightenment. For some the experience in America was a satisfying one, for others, such as Adorno, his time in America was an “Exile.” Even though he became an American citizen, Adorno finally returned to Germany in 1949. If the Jews in Europe had been exterminated in the name of “Identity”-that is, they were identified as “The Other” through their yellow stars, then it was up to Adorno to explore the concept of non-identity. Later Jean-François Lyotard would use deconstruction married to Adorno to discuss the Holocaust in terms of what he called the differend and the forced silence of those who were outside the dialectic. For Adorno, the problems of the Enlightenment were caused by “Identity thinking”, or the subsuming of the particulars under general concepts or grand narratives. Like Benjamin who insisted on examining an object in its historical particularity, Adorno asserted that the danger of identity thinking could be averted through Negative Dialectics, which assesses relations among things according to the criteria the object had of itself. Adorno took up the Dialectic in order to negate the presumed progression from one term to the other. Most importantly, Adorno has eliminated the linear teleology of the Dialectic and once the possibility of progressive movement is negated within the constellation, the point of origin-Nothingness-is eliminated. The humanity of the Jews was “Forgotten,” because as Adorno said, “All reification is a forgetting” and even democratic countries produce forgetting through the culture industry. Throughout his career, Adorno never relaxed his hostility to “Affirmative cultures” and wrote Negative Dialectics, 1966 and explored the dark implications of Auschwitz for metaphysics and art. In Adorno and Horkheimer: Diasporic Philosophy, Negative Theology, and Counter-Education, Ilan Gur-Ze´ev wrote in 2005 that Horkheimer and Adorno broke with tradition and created a “Diasporic philosophy” which is “Nomadic.” Its starting point, he pointed out is the absence of truth. Such a world does not admit to contradictions that must be silenced by received wisdom or what Adorno called “Reified consciousness.” Reified thinking is almost a contradiction in terms for such a pattern of acceptance cannot change. In an abstract way that is also concrete and psychological, it is important for Adorno that one recognizes not just that which as been refused but also to come to terms with one’s guilt for having turned away from the contradictions within the dialectic. Adorno could foresee that the “Working through the past” would lead to exactly where it ended up twenty years after his death, in the “Historians’ Controversy.” His worst fears were realized when apologists attempted to “Normalize” the Holocaust and re-characterize it as part of larger historical patterns.

Keywords: [“Adorno”,”through”,”culture”]
Source: http://arthistoryunstuffed.com/theodor-adorno-and-negative-dialectics

JR Test Site News for 01-17-2018

Enlightenment and Its Critics by Nadia Bou Ali

The West Point of Capitalism

Writing to H. G. Wells in 1906, William James lamented “The moral flabbiness born of the exclusive worship of the bitch-goddess SUCCESS.” Alarmed by the devotion this deity elicited from his avid Harvard undergraduates, James diagnosed as “Our national disease” the “Squalid cash interpretation put on the word success.” Two years later, Harvard Business School opened its doors to its inaugural class of the divinity’s curates. Duff McDonald is savvier than James about the ways and ruses of the gilded goddess, but he leavens his remarkable history of Harvard Business School with a kindred outrage. A contributing editor at the New York Observer and a writer for Fortune, Vanity Fair, the New Yorker, and other periodicals, McDonald is one of the nation’s finest business journalists. In his sprawling and capacious new book he chronicles the nation’s most prestigious business school-sometimes referred to as “The West Point of capitalism”-with an engagingly ambivalent blend of admiration, effrontery, and cynicism. Tracing HBS from its exalted inception to its unabashedly mercenary present, McDonald provides a gargantuan case study in hubris and self-delusion. Like other business schools that were established at the time-Wharton at Penn, Tuck at Dartmouth, Sloan at MIT-HBS emerged from the crucible of the corporate reconstruction of American capitalism. As small proprietors were increasingly engulfed or eclipsed by corporations in the decades after the Civil War, economists and capitalists forged a new conception of business activity and education. In this view, HBS and other business schools taught the sophisticated, even recondite skills required for success in the brave new corporate world. While being transfigured into a “Profession,” business also morphed from the “Trucking and bartering” described by Adam Smith into a “Science” comparable to other bodies of knowledge with disciplinary protocols. At the same time, business leadership assumed a more mandarin, platonic countenance; more than a cadre defined by organizational prowess, it was seen to comprise the philosopher-managers of a prosperous corporate republic. As the school’s first dean, Edwin Gay, explained to trustees in 1909, “We believe there is science in business,” and HBS graduates would be men with “Breadth of view and an inclination for learning.” Harvard’s humanist ancien régime recoiled; business students, they feared, would pollute the groves of academe with their swinish avarice and careerism. As the literary critic John Jay Chapman scolded an HBS audience in 1924, it was “Vanity and ignorance” to think that a business school is anything more than “a school where you learn to make money.” But the sanctimonious fantasy of corporate management as the enlightened elite of capitalism persisted. Seeking to drape business in the raiment of professionalism, HBS employed the renowned “Case study” method-a compendium, as McDonald characterizes them, of “Sanitized versions of corporate heroism” that, in his view, impairs the ability of graduates to adapt quickly and deftly to changes in markets and technologies. In his seven-year stint at the helm of the war machine, McNamara supervised a carnage that claimed the lives of nearly sixty thousand Americans and millions of Vietnamese, a mass production of death and dispossession facilitated by the methods he learned at HBS. So was there really such a great metamorphosis? In his penetrating chapter on McNamara, McDonald attributes the war’s ferocious futility to the data-driven nescience of “Slide-rule commandos.” Oblivious to the elusive or unmeasureable-commitment, tenacity, or intrepidness, especially on the part of the Vietnamese-McNamara and his fellow technocrats of slaughter thought of war as a venture in statistical analysis, not unlike marketing at Ford.

Keywords: [“Business”,”HBS”,”War”]
Source: https://www.commonwealmagazine.org/west-point-capitalism

The Frankfurt School

Working at the Institut fur Sozialforschung in Frankfurt, Germany in the late 1920s and early 1930s, theorists such as Max Horkheimer, T.W. Adorno, Herbert Marcuse, Leo Lowenthal, and Erich Fromm produced some of the first accounts within critical social theory of the importance of mass culture and communication in social reproduction and domination. Moving from Nazi Germany to the United States, the Frankfurt School experienced at first hand the rise of a media culture involving film, popular music, radio, television, and other forms of mass culture. Adorno’s analyses of popular music, television, and other phenomena ranging from astrology columns to fascist speeches, Lowenthal’s studies of popular literature and magazines, Herzog’s studies of radio soap operas, and the perspectives and critiques of mass culture developed in Horkheimer and Adorno’s famous study of the culture industries provide many examples of the Frankfurt school approach. In their theories of the culture industries and critiques of mass culture, they were among the first social theorists its importance in the reproduction of contemporary societies. The Frankfurt school theorists were among the first neo-Marxian groups to examine the effects of mass culture and the rise of the consumer society on the working classes which were to be the instrument of revolution in the classical Marxian scenario. The Frankfurt school focused intently on technology and culture, indicating how technology was becoming both a major force of production and formative mode of social organization and control. In the realm of culture, technology produced mass culture that habituated individuals to conform to the dominant patterns of thought and behavior, and thus provided powerful instruments of social control and domination. Victims of European fascism, the Frankfurt school experienced first hand the ways that the Nazis used the instruments of mass culture to produce submission to fascist culture and society. While in exile in the United States, the members of the Frankfurt school came to believe that American “Popular culture” was also highly ideological and worked to promote the interests of American capitalism. Freed from the mystification of high culture, Benjamin believed that media culture could cultivate more critical individuals able to judge and analyze their culture, just as sports fans could dissect and evaluate athletic activities. The Frankfurt School also provide useful historical perspectives on the transition from traditional culture and modernism in the arts to a mass-produced media and consumer society. Mass culture for the Frankfurt School produced desires, dreams, hopes, fears, and longings, as well as unending desire for consumer products. Thus, the Frankfurt school theory of the culture industry articulates a major historical shift to an era in which mass consumption and culture was indispensable to producing a consumer society based on homogeneous needs and desires for mass-produced products and a mass society based on social organization and homogeneity. Of course, media culture was never as massified and homogeneous as in the Frankfurt school model and one could argue that the model was flawed even during its time of origin and influence and that other models were preferable, such as those of Walter Benjamin, Siegfried Kracauer, Ernst Bloch, and others of the Weimar generation and, later, British cultural studies. The original Frankfurt school model of the culture industry did articulate the important social roles of media culture during a specific regime of capital and provided a model, still of use, of a highly commercial and technologically advanced culture that serves the needs of dominant corporate interests, plays a major role in ideological reproduction, and in enculturating individuals into the dominant system of needs, thought, and behavior.

Keywords: [“culture”,”mass”,”cultural”]
Source: https://pages.gseis.ucla.edu/faculty/kellner/papers/fs.htm