“History! It’s the most fun you can have in school!”
How did the French Revolution embody the ideas of the Enlightenment? How did the Revolution contribute to French nationalism? “The essential cause of the French Revolution was the collision between a powerful rising bourgeoisie and an entrenched aristocracy defending its privileges.” Assess the validity of this statement as an explanation of the events leading up to the French Revolution of 1789. How did the changes in political power in the French Revolution from 1789-1799 reflect the social, political and economic aspirations of the bourgeoisie?Analyze the class conflicts that precipitated the French Revolution, the subsequent changes in political power and the resulting governments from 1789-1799.29. How were the values of the Enlightenment reflected in the different stages of the French Revolution?What reasons did members of different social and economic classes have to support or not support the French Revolution between 1789-1799?”The French Revolution lived up to its motto of ‘Liberty, Equality, Fraternity’.” Assess the validity of this statement. Discuss three developments that enabled Great Britain to achieve a dominant economic position between 1700 and 1830.Identify features of the 18th century Agricultural Revolution and analyze its social and economic consequences. “The Romantic artist was inspired by his love of the French Revolution and his abhorrence of the Industrial Revolution.” Discuss this statement from the point of view of two different forms of art. Discuss the relationship between nationalism and liberalism in the continental Europeans revolutions of 1848. How did romanticism, nationalism and the Industrial Revolution affect government stability in mid 19th century England and on the continent?How did the Industrial Revolution, liberalism, romanticism, nationalism and the rise of the middle class combine to shape 19th century Europe?How did different patterns of industrialization lead to political, social and economic differences between Europe and England in the early 19th century?What factors in the first half of the 19th century lead to the rise of the middle class and the increasing isolation of England from the rest of Europe?Why was England able to institute social, political and economic reforms more peacefully than its continental counterparts?Contrast the impact of nationalism in Germany and the Austrian Empire from 1848-1914. To what extent and in what ways did the failure of reform and abortive revolution lead to the Revolution of 1917? Describe the economic, social and political conditions in Russia between 1881-1917 and how they laid the groundwork for the Bolshevik Revolution. How did feminist ideology and programs change from the period of the French Revolution to the beginning of the Second World War? Using the Glorious Revolution of 1688, the French Revolution of 1789 and the Russian Revolution of 1917, discuss and analyze the nature and scope of the revolutionary tradition in modern Europe. Explain the origins and consequences of the “Price Revolution” which began late in the 15th century. Explain the role of the Agricultural Revolution in the early 18th century in the development of capitalism.
Theodor Adorno and “Negative Dialectics”
THEODOR ADORNO. AND. IDENTITY. Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno wrote their critique of the culture of Western civilization, Dialectic of Enlightenment during the Second World War. Perhaps it took the magisterial pessimism of Theodor Adorno in Negative Dialectics to articulate the true extent of the Fall of humanity outside the bounds of the Enlightenment. For some the experience in America was a satisfying one, for others, such as Adorno, his time in America was an “Exile.” Even though he became an American citizen, Adorno finally returned to Germany in 1949. If the Jews in Europe had been exterminated in the name of “Identity”-that is, they were identified as “The Other” through their yellow stars, then it was up to Adorno to explore the concept of non-identity. Later Jean-François Lyotard would use deconstruction married to Adorno to discuss the Holocaust in terms of what he called the differend and the forced silence of those who were outside the dialectic. For Adorno, the problems of the Enlightenment were caused by “Identity thinking”, or the subsuming of the particulars under general concepts or grand narratives. Like Benjamin who insisted on examining an object in its historical particularity, Adorno asserted that the danger of identity thinking could be averted through Negative Dialectics, which assesses relations among things according to the criteria the object had of itself. Adorno took up the Dialectic in order to negate the presumed progression from one term to the other. Most importantly, Adorno has eliminated the linear teleology of the Dialectic and once the possibility of progressive movement is negated within the constellation, the point of origin-Nothingness-is eliminated. The humanity of the Jews was “Forgotten,” because as Adorno said, “All reification is a forgetting” and even democratic countries produce forgetting through the culture industry. Throughout his career, Adorno never relaxed his hostility to “Affirmative cultures” and wrote Negative Dialectics, 1966 and explored the dark implications of Auschwitz for metaphysics and art. In Adorno and Horkheimer: Diasporic Philosophy, Negative Theology, and Counter-Education, Ilan Gur-Ze´ev wrote in 2005 that Horkheimer and Adorno broke with tradition and created a “Diasporic philosophy” which is “Nomadic.” Its starting point, he pointed out is the absence of truth. Such a world does not admit to contradictions that must be silenced by received wisdom or what Adorno called “Reified consciousness.” Reified thinking is almost a contradiction in terms for such a pattern of acceptance cannot change. In an abstract way that is also concrete and psychological, it is important for Adorno that one recognizes not just that which as been refused but also to come to terms with one’s guilt for having turned away from the contradictions within the dialectic. Adorno could foresee that the “Working through the past” would lead to exactly where it ended up twenty years after his death, in the “Historians’ Controversy.” His worst fears were realized when apologists attempted to “Normalize” the Holocaust and re-characterize it as part of larger historical patterns.