J.R.’s Zaphne Blog News for 09-27-2018

Can capitalism be compassionate?

For an individual a concept like Kurtosis would have no meaning. Private ownership allows for exchange between individuals. An objection may be that we are dealing only with numbers, but if those numbers were actually pointing to individuals, and referred to each individuals’ height, then the Quicksort process could still not be compassionate, kind, or just. If I, as an individual, were to choose my own method to sort those individuals’ heights, then I could choose a method that is compassionate or that is not. There is no method, or rules of conduct, that the sickly individual could observe which would at the same time allow him or her to secure food without making it more scarce for others. 

We can consider how individuals seek other individuals to partner with and marry. Most would not object to allowing individuals to choose their own partner, but we would be likely to object if one partner forced another partner to be with them. They were simply pursuing their own individual interests. Many thousands of years ago, the individuals of the human species in their technological infancy could only look at those outside of their immediate family, or perhaps tribe, as competitors for the scarce resources nature chanced to provide. It is only when one human conceives that he or she, or his or her immediate family or tribe, could be better off by exchanging with another individual from an altogether different family or tribe, that compassion can begin to develop between humans outside of immediate families or tribes, because they no longer need to view each other as competitors for scare resources, they’ve developed a new abstract relationship- a relationship of exchange for mutual benefit. 

Individuals who engage in a great deal of trade with one another tend to have strong relationships, and to share similar interests. Those individuals who do not engage in trade with one another have no such mutual interests. 

Keywords: [“Individual”,”partner”,”process”]
Source: https://www.quora.com/Can-capitalism-be-compassionate

The Pursuit of Equal Income Distribution

During the last decades, the great weaknesses of capitalism have flourished. Inequality of income distribution has worsened painfully, the gap between rich and poor widens more and more every day, and just a few lucky entrepreneurs in the world are able to enjoy the capital benefits of the global system. Hunger, poverty, demographic explosion, ageing, and unbridled mass migration, among other factors, have become critical social dilemmas directly related to capitalist deviations, all of which cause us to foresee a chaotic world scenario in the near future. The numbers shown in this article confirm that the world’s economic disparity, instead of diminishing, is increasing at an alarming rate. Since the world economy completely depends on capitalism, this system is still extremely powerful and influential in global decision-making, thus further aggravating economic disparity. 

As it is not possible to avoid the capitalist system, we will make proposals that are feasible for implementing within the current capitalist tendencies in order to alleviate global imbalance. Compassionate Capitalism is an alternative that promotes flexibilization of the system in order to make it more sustainable. It seeks to diminish corporate control over the economy and markets by regaining the State’s economic intervention so that profits are fairly redistributed for the common welfare. The information used for the study is based on the most recent international reports and global circumstances of the topics in question. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. 

To make sure that you can receive messages from us, please add ‘julypress.com’ domain to your e-mail ‘safe list’. If you do not receive e-mail in your ‘inbox’, check your ‘bulk mail’ or ‘junk mail’ folders. 

Keywords: [“system”,”global”,”world”]
Source: http://journal.julypress.com/index.php/ajsss/article/view/262

The Case For Compassionate Capitalism

The closer we looked at capitalism, the more we found it wanting. To save capitalism from itself, FDR introduced what turned out to be the crucial missing ingredient: compassion. The damage done to the country during the Depression convinced him that unregulated capitalism always favors the rich at the expense of everyone else. So to save capitalism from itself, FDR introduced what turned out to be the crucial missing ingredient: compassion. He knew instinctively that fairness – essential to any functioning democracy – was an alien concept to pure capitalism. 

Compassionate capitalism worked for everyone without busting the federal budget. Under Roosevelt’s compassionate capitalism – even with a Great Depression and a Second World War – the federal budget quickly came right back into balance. By the time Eisenhower was elected, compassionate capitalism was tightly woven into the fabric of American democracy. America’s social safety net was never viewed as the cause of eye-popping deficits until a radical group of political nihilists decided that the best way to kill the compassion in capitalism was to stubbornly refuse to pay for it. The reason compassionate capitalism is still hugely popular – Tea Party extremists notwithstanding – is because it works. 

America’s social safety net was never viewed as the cause of eye-popping deficits until a radical group of political nihilists, led by people like Grover Norquist, decided that the best way to kill the compassion in capitalism was to stubbornly refuse to pay for it – and then blame the resulting deficits on the lie that compassion itself is just too damn expensive. History has repeatedly demonstrated that compassionate capitalism leads to balanced budgets, a robust economy, and a piece of the opportunity pie for every citizen seated at America’s table. 

Keywords: [“capitalism”,”deficit”,”budget”]
Source: http://www.wbur.org/cognoscenti/2013/03/21/nick-paleologos

J.R.’s Zaphne Blog News for 05-30-2018

Can capitalism be compassionate?

For an individual a concept like Kurtosis would have no meaning. Private ownership allows for exchange between individuals. An objection may be that we are dealing only with numbers, but if those numbers were actually pointing to individuals, and referred to each individuals’ height, then the Quicksort process could still not be compassionate, kind, or just. If I, as an individual, were to choose my own method to sort those individuals’ heights, then I could choose a method that is compassionate or that is not. There is no method, or rules of conduct, that the sickly individual could observe which would at the same time allow him or her to secure food without making it more scarce for others. 

We can consider how individuals seek other individuals to partner with and marry. Most would not object to allowing individuals to choose their own partner, but we would be likely to object if one partner forced another partner to be with them. They were simply pursuing their own individual interests. Many thousands of years ago, the individuals of the human species in their technological infancy could only look at those outside of their immediate family, or perhaps tribe, as competitors for the scarce resources nature chanced to provide. It is only when one human conceives that he or she, or his or her immediate family or tribe, could be better off by exchanging with another individual from an altogether different family or tribe, that compassion can begin to develop between humans outside of immediate families or tribes, because they no longer need to view each other as competitors for scare resources, they’ve developed a new abstract relationship- a relationship of exchange for mutual benefit. 

Individuals who engage in a great deal of trade with one another tend to have strong relationships, and to share similar interests. Those individuals who do not engage in trade with one another have no such mutual interests. 

Keywords: [“Individual”,”partner”,”process”]
Source: https://www.quora.com/Can-capitalism-be-compassionate

Love And Compassion Will Save Us When AI Takes Our Jobs

As artificial intelligence swiftly creeps into the mainstream, it will take over jobs. The first to go will be things like data analysis and retail operations, followed by more complex endeavors like driving. The advent of AI is often discussed as something of a selective guillotine falling on our employment ecosystem: Either your job is knocked out, or its spared. A former Google, Apple, and Microsoft employee turned venture capitalist with a speciality in artificial intelligence, sees a more humanistic way to integrate AI into our economies. Lee, during the height of his career, put work above all else, he tells the audience at TED 2018 in Vancouver. 

As he worked on artificial intelligence systems, he thought of them as ways to streamline routine work to create more room for innovation, and his job, as one of the early developers of these technologies, was to innovate faster and better to support this future. That changed when Lee was diagnosed with stage-four lymphoma several years ago. He was given just several months to live, and as he underwent chemotherapy, he read books on how people approached the end of life. He’s now in remission, but his experience with life-threatening illness caused him to think about work in new ways. It’s a nice idea, and certainly true-we’re facing a shortage of teachers, whose jobs will be crucial in bolstering young peoples’ abilities to participate in modern economies, and caretakers for the elderly will become ever more important as lifespans extend. 

The jobs that Lee cited during his talk as replacements for those made redundant by AI are notoriously underpaid, and often lack critical benefits like health care. If we’re going to follow Lee’s recommendation, we should be sure to do so alongside implementing stronger financial securities for people working these jobs-ideally, in the form of a universal basic income and universal benefits. 

Keywords: [“job”,”work”,”Lee”]
Source: https://www.fastcompany.com/40558634/love-and-compassion-will-save…

Exclusive: Illinois Khilafah Conference “Capitalism is to Blame”

The 2012 Khilafah Islamic Conference got off to a rocky start. The conference was originally scheduled to be held at The Meadows Club in Rolling Meadows, Illinois, however after the Chicago Daily Herald reported the agenda and location of the event, all hell broke loose with the owner of the Meadows Club, who was inundated with countless calls and emails from the public opposed to this conference. Angry residents warned that there would be large protests if he allowed the conference to be held at that location. The owner conceded and cancelled the event, which then moved to a new location, The Lexington House, Hickory Hills, IL. According to the American Muslim Forum for Democracy, Hizb-ut-Tahrir, the group that hosts the meeting, is a radical origination that promotes world-wide jihad, and targets young children to join their movement. 

The following excerpt comes from AMFD’s 2009 call for Muslim organizations to denounce and condemn the Hizb-ut-Tahrir. American Capitalism has caused all that is wrong with the Muslim world today. The Capitalist System was created to restrict Muslims. Jews and Christians will not be happy with Muslims until they adopt their way of life. Obama failed on two issues, Palestine and dealing with the entire Muslim world. 

That they are a peaceful non-violent movement while viewing the diagram on the overhead projector showing the structure of the Sharia governing cabinet, it listed a private secretary in charge of Jihad. To my surprise, I found myself being the only American reporter at the conference along with two other foreign reporters. We were not allowed to use any video or audio equipment while the conference was being held. Afterwards Dr. Mohammed Malkawi aka Abu Talha took questions from us and consented to audio recording of the interview. 

Keywords: [“Muslim”,”Conference”,”held”]
Source: http://rebelpundit.com/exclusive-illinois-khilafah-conference-capitalism…

J.R.’s Zaphne Blog News for 04-03-2018

Whole Foods CEO John Mackey On “Conscious capitalism”

Starting my own business was kind of a wakeup call in a number of different ways. We had to… The wages were under competitive pressures, so there was all this competition on us that of course made operating the business successfully difficult. It’s kind of like having to meet a payroll and having to meet the demands of our customers is a great destroyer of utopian fantasies and utopian ideologies. I just found that the belief system that I had going into operating that business was inadequate to explain the experiences that I was having in business and I began to look around and read other books and other philosophies to try to make sense out of my life and out of my business experience and it was really through encountering the free market capitalist philosophies of Milton Friedman and Friedrich Hayek and Ludwig von Mises and many other free market philosophers that I came to realize that this explanation made a lot more sense in my business experience and made more sense in terms of how the world really operated and so that is when my worldview began to shift and I began to let go of being sort of a democratic socialist. John Mackey: Any type of political ideology is going to have a lot of different variants of it, a lot of different…. Libertarians are constantly arguing with each other who is the most pure libertarian and who is most ideologically pure. What I resist… one of the strains of libertarianism and that I reject: I reject the idea that human kind is essentially selfish, not only as an observation that we frequently are selfish, but there is a strain of belief, particularly in the Ayn Rand part of the movement that believes people ought to be selfish, that that is a virtue, that humans are always self interested and altruism is evil and love is something that makes us weak. I’m a caring, compassionate person and I believe that free markets and free minds leads to the greatest human flourishing, so I really want humans to flourish and I believe liberty and market economies and capitalism are the best strategies for full human flourishing. John Mackey: I do believe that many libertarians are animated by human flourishing. They… we sincerely believe that human flourishing… That we need to be free and that we need to be creative, and that through human freedom entrepreneurship that humans are creative; they create new ways of creating value for each other that expresses the self through the economic system and leads to greater prosperity, not for a few, but for most people and eventually all people. So there is a strain of deep idealism in the libertarian movement. It’s again sometimes masked over by that ideology of selfishness, but the human flourishing element is definitely a big aspect of I think of the motivational structure of many libertarians. John Mackey: I think the zero-sum worldview is the predominate one.

Keywords: [“human”,”business”,”flourish”]
Source: http://www.valuewalk.com/2018/02/whole-foods-ceo-john-mackey

Capitalism and the Free Society, Part 1

For the classical liberal, the most fundamental property right possessed by an individual is to his own person. Now if the individual has a right to his life and his liberty, and to the fruits of his own labor – the harvested crop – then it logically follows that this individual has an equally just private property right in the tools, implements and equipment that he has produced through his mental and physical labor to assist him in his productive efforts. Capitalism is an economic system based on the principle of every individual’s right to his own life, his own liberty and his own honestly acquired property. The capitalist system also is based on the principle that the recognition of every individual’s right to his own life and liberty requires that all human relationships and associations be established through voluntary consent and mutual agreement. To have production goods in the economic sense, i.e. to make them serve one’s own economic purposes, it is not necessary to have them physically in the way that one must have consumption goods if one is to use them up or to use them lastingly. To drink coffee I do not need to own a coffee plantation in Brazil, an ocean liner, and a coffee roasting plant, though all these means of production must be used to bring a cup of coffee to my table. In the society that divides labor no one is exclusive owner of the means of production, either of the material things or of the personal element, capacity to work. The individual who owns nothing but the labor of his own mind and body is able to sell his talents and abilities for what others may consider them to be worth, either in directly satisfying some others’ consumer demands or in assisting an employer in producing a product to be sold to consumers in the marketplace. With the wages earned for services rendered, this individual who owns nothing but himself now has the outputs of the world placed before him by all the other private owners of various means of production who can only earn revenues and income by finding interested and willing buyers for the goods and services they offer on the market. In their own self-interests, so they also may demand the outputs of others in the arena of market exchange, the owners of the physical means of production must apply themselves in their producer roles to successfully fulfill the consumer wants and desires of everyone else in the society. Just as each of us helps in determining everyone else’s relative income position when we spend portions of our own earned income on various goods we desire and for which we are willing to pay. The capitalist system generates the institutional framework and incentive structure that leaves everyone free as an individual to live his own life, enjoy his personal liberty, and use his private property as his peacefully and honestly considers best for his own betterment.

Keywords: [“own”,”individual”,”other”]
Source: https://www.cobdencentre.org/2017/11/capitalism-and-the-free…

J.R.’s Zaphne Blog News for 03-19-2018

Compassionate Activism

In our new age, Earth and Human are entangled irrevocably together. The term – which appears to have been used by Russian scientists as early as the 1960s to refer to the Quaternary, the most recent geological Period – was coined with a different sense in the 1980s by ecologist Eugene F. Stoermer and has been widely popularized by atmospheric chemist, Paul Crutzen, who regards the influence of human behaviour on the Earth’s atmosphere in recent centuries as so significant as to constitute a new geological epoch for its lithosphere. Human activity had to be at least tempered, rendered in the new jargon ‘sustainable’. A new mode of being human is required, one that is profoundly responsible for all it does, but must be profoundly attentive to the new agent stirring and moving all around us – the Earth itself. We have entered a world of inter-agency between the human and the non-human Earth. From once believing ourselves humans free upon a stable nature to do as we wish we find ourselves newly earth-bound, tied into the Earth itself, as part of it. The objectivity underlying the emergence of the Anthropocene does not nevertheless deliver us automatically into new modes of presence on the Earth, new forms of inter-species and human justice. If the Anthropocene serves as a new frame within which to view and construct social modes of presence then we must accept our collective responsibility for our human status as geological drivers of our planet. The new human subject is no longer in nature – they are nature. As social theorist Bruno Latour has said: ‘There is indeed a war for the definition and control of the Earth: a war that pits – to be a little dramatic – Humans living in the Holocene against Earthbound living in the Anthropocene’.

Keywords: [“human”,”new”,”Earth”]
Source: https://markgar.wordpress.com

compassion – States, Power, Emotion

As the film shows this is state enforced misery through inadequacy building exercises into the psyches of state recipients. As the experience of those seeking welfare shows, the rules for claiming state support are permanently in motion. The lower the state intervenes into the social fabric the more the ‘system’ becomes opaque without clear norms, values and rules. At the lowest levels of state activity we are more likely to glimpse bewilderment, dislocation and disruption in our lives rather than clearly discernible norms and rules in operation. There has always been an aspect of state power that has a post- or pre-disciplinary aspect – an order that is based on incalculability and the introduction of trauma. Wolfgang Sofsky called it ‘the order of terror’ and it is apparent to degrees in all modern states. Such displays of state power lack clear goals or meaning. The welfare benefits office is not Auschwitz but it is interesting how the same techniques of power based on the incomprehensibility of the rules and the forceful disorientation of the ruled come into play as tactics of power: the constant re-writing and redefining of who is ‘eligible’, ‘worthy’ and ‘deserving’ of state support; the slippery changes in language – ‘claimant’, ‘Jobseeker’, ‘unemployed’; the bewildering variety of ‘restart’ training exercises and the ever-present surveillance and repetitive intelligence-gathering exercises into the lives of those out of work. As the film attests to the misery and trauma built into state ‘support’ it also attests to the anger, integrity and compassion of Daniel and ‘family’ as they fight and live with state barbarism. It’s a call for a more, not less, emotional state – one based on compassion, empathy and trust.

Keywords: [“state”,”rule”,”welfare”]
Source: https://emotionalstates.wordpress.com/tag/compassion

The Capitalism Site

Capitalism is the moral ideal Capitalism is the moral social system as it leaves the individual free to be virtuous – to pursue the good – by acting by reason. Individualism regards the individual as a sovereign being Individualism is not opposed to one living in society as a trader; it is opposed to one living as a slave. The trader principle is the basis of all moral relationships Individualism is based on the principle of trading value for value for mutual benefit. Individual rights define one’s freedom of action in a social context All rights are rights to freedom of action: the right to those actions necessary to rationally support one’s life – so long as one does not violate the equal rights of others. Individual rights are the means of subordinating society to moral law. The initiation of physical force is the only way to violate rights The individual can only be stopped from acting rationally by the initiation of physical force. Government’s purpose is to protect individual rights Government’s job is to ban the initiation of physical force from all relationships, making all relationships voluntary. A free-market is an economic system based on individual rights A free-market bans physical force, fraud, and coercion from all economic relationships, resulting in voluntary cooperation between buyers and sellers, and peaceful competition between buyers and between sellers. Men trade their goods or services by mutual consent to mutual advantage, according to their own independent, uncoerced judgment. Capitalism is the system of progress; statism is the system of plunder The alleged failures of capitalism are actually caused by the success of statism.

Keywords: [“right”,”individual”,”force”]
Source: http://capitalism.org

J.R.’s Zaphne Blog News for 01-31-2018

Working for a free and prosperous world

For the classical liberal, the most fundamental property right possessed by an individual is his own person. It remains a core conception derived from John Locke that if a man settles down on land previously unoccupied or not owned by any others, that individual makes a legitimate claim to it as his rightful possession by in some way working and changing the land, such as clearing the field, planting the crop, tending it to maturity, and bringing in the harvest. If the band of thieves return and find nothing to plunder, may they physically take control of our luckless individual and, again under the threat of force, make him work the land to plant, grow, and harvest a crop for the thieves to claim as their own? If they do so, has not our individual been transformed into a slave, a person who does not own his mind and body but is forced to use them by the threatening command of others? These produced means of production – the plow and all other tools and implements – are the individual’s rightfully owned physical “Capital” that assists his productive efforts. Having the personal liberty and the rightful property ownership in both the settled land and the physical “Capital” to produce a desired product, he has increased his own capacity to survive and better his own life. Capitalism is an economic system based on the principle of every individual’s right to his own life, his own liberty, and his own honestly acquired property. The capitalist system also is based on the principle that the recognition of every individual’s right to his own life and liberty requires that all human relationships and associations be established through voluntary consent and mutual agreement. Division of Labor and the Other’s Labor Placed Before Us. It may be reasonably asked, but what about a world, like ours, in which unclaimed and unsettled, and unowned land and resources to produce the necessities and amenities of everyday life, are not available for every individual or family to appropriate for themselves? We enter the world, and others already own almost everything in that world. The individual who owns nothing but the labor of his own mind and body is able to sell his talents and abilities for what others may consider them to be worth, either by directly satisfying some others’ consumer demands or by assisting an employer in producing a product to be sold to consumers in the marketplace. With the wages earned for services rendered, this individual who owns nothing but himself now has the outputs of the world placed before him by all the other private owners of various means of production who can only earn revenues by finding interested and willing buyers for the goods and services they offer. In their own self-interests, so they also may demand the outputs of others in the arena of market exchange, the owners of the physical means of production must apply themselves in their producer roles to successfully fulfill the consumer wants of everyone else in the society. The capitalist system generates the institutional framework and incentive structure that leaves everyone free as an individual to live his own life, enjoy his personal liberty, and use his private property as his peacefully.

Keywords: [“own”,”individual”,”Capitalism”]
Source: https://fee.org/articles/what-is-capitalism-anyway

Chapter 14 Human Capitalism

Download the entire chapter Parachuting cats into Borneo – Stopping the waste of people – Curitiba’s web of solutions – Faster travel without freeways – Subways on the surface – Simple, fast, fun, and cheap – When garbage isn’t garbage – No hunger pangs – A place for living – A symbol of the possible What destination does our society want to reach, and how will it get there? Lessons in what not to do can often be found in cities, where most officials, overwhelmed by a flood of problems, try to cope by naming and solving them one at a time. Too often, cities similarly find that the cause of their problems is prior solutions that have either missed their mark or boomeranged, like the bigger road that invites more traffic, the river channelization that worsens floods, the homeless shelter that spreads tuberculosis, and the prison that trains criminals in more sophisticated techniques. WEAVING THE WEB OF SOLUTIONS: THE CURITIBA EXAMPLECuritiba is a southeastern Brazilian city with the population of Houston or Philadelphia. Though starting with the dismal economic profile typical of its region, in nearly three decades the city has achieved measurably better levels of education, health, human welfare, public safety, democratic participation, political integrity, environmental protection, and community spirit than its neighbors, and some would say than most cities in the United States. The lessons of Curitiba’s transformation hold promise and hope for all cities and all peoples throughout the world. Some people started picking the flowers to take home, but city workers promptly replanted them, day after day, until the pillage stopped. Cheery, informal, energetic, intensely practical, with the brain of a technocrat and the soul of a poet, Lerner was selected not only for his knowledge of the city’s needs but also for his supposed lack of political talent: The governor wanted someone politically nonthreatening. Five of the six were architects, engineers, or planners who treated the city and its political leadership as a design problem, continuously unfolding as the city’s 1965 master plan shed its rigidities and evolved to meet changing needs. Curitiba is not a top-down, mayor-dominated city; everyone respects the fact that, while it is served by leaders, many of the best ideas and most of their implementation come from its citizens. Lerner believed, as the late ecologist Rene Dubos put it, that “Trend is not destiny.” Rejecting the destruction of people-centered cities to rebuild them around cars, Lerner aimed to regain the vibrancy and diversity of the street life he’d enjoyed as a child, playing outside his Polish immigrant father’s dry-goods store on the street of the main railway station. Having served previously as the president of the Curitiba Research and Urban Planning Institute, the nucleus of the city’s innovative design ideas since the mid-1960s, he and his design colleagues saw Curitiba as a living laboratory to test their novel concept; but there was no time to lose. With its human population doubling each decade but with no new vision of urbanism, the city was rapidly developing clogged streets, bad air, and a dwindling sense of community.

Keywords: [“city”,”people”,”need”]
Source: http://www.natcap.org/sitepages/pid67.php

JR Test Site News for 01-26-2018

enlightened rogue

“Those who are determined to be ‘offended’ will discover a provocation somewhere. We cannot possibly adjust enough to please the fanatics, and it is degrading to make the attempt.” “War sends the current of purpose and activity flowing down to the lowest level of the herd, and to its most remote branches. All the activities of society are linked together as fast as possible to this central purpose of making a military offensive or a military defense, and the State becomes what in peacetimes it has vainly struggled to become – the inexorable arbiter and determinant of men’s business and attitudes and opinions. The slack is taken up, the cross-currents fade out, and the nation moves lumberingly and slowly, but with ever accelerated speed and integration, toward the great end, toward the ‘peacefulness of being at war,’ of which L.P. Jacks has so unforgettably spoken.” “The powers that be are fond of pointing to the worst government abuse historically on Earth and making claims of moral superiority, but in the end, while the Communist and National Socialist governments in the twentieth century may have harmed their respective populations and those they subdued through war, at least, we have the moral high ground. Of course, this is much like a getting an Underachiever Award at a serial killer convention. The entire system of governance is based on violence and nothing else no matter how noble it is portrayed or how many rose petals litter the dais of the King.”. “As you know I don’t believe in democracy, I believe in personal freedom. Democracy is workable enough in something like a cohesive city-state. But absolutely not once voters get involved in economic issues-the poor will always vote themselves a free lunch, and the rich will buy votes to give themselves more. Democracy always devolves into class warfare.” “In ancient Greece, if you weren’t a landowner you weren’t respected. In the U.S., voting rules were determined by the States, and originally, everywhere, you had to be a landowner. That meant you had something to lose. But that’s not the case anymore.” “The Constitution is an immoral document. It explicates a litany of conditional privileges, subject to modification at any time. That this is done in an orderly manner, via ‘constitutionally’ prescribed mechanisms, does not make the doing of it morally legitimate.” “Slavery, to whatever degree, remains slavery.” “Western cultures emphasize the future; view work as a blessing rather than as a burden; promote individuals based on their merit; value education and frugality, are philanthropic, identify with universal causes, and have higher ethics.” In static cultures, individuals tend to be fatalistic rather than future-oriented; live for the present or past; work only because they need to; diminish or dismiss the value of education, frugality, and philanthropy; are often mired in nepotism and corruption; and promote individuals based on clan and connections, rather than capabilities. ‘I am because we are’ is how one wag encapsulated the cog-like role of the individual in African culture. In advanced cultures, on the other hand, the individual, and not the collective, is paramount…. “Magic wins out over reason; community over individual; communal ownership over private property; force and coercion over rights and responsibilities; wealth distribution over its accumulation.”

Keywords: [“individual”,”over”,”culture”]
Source: http://enlightened-rogue.blogspot.com

Enlighten yourself with our meditation course and energy enhancement guide

Not only does Energy Enhancement teach the techniques of every other Meditation, by saying “Every other Meditation Course is designed to Fail!” we are saying that without the Ancient Techniques of Alchemical VITRIOL, Axis Mundi, Kundalini Key, Soul Fusion, Quantum Integration, The Chakras Above the Head, the Energy Enhancement Seven Step Process to remove Energy Blockages, the Karma Cleaning Process, the Grounding of Negative Energies, the Psychic Cord Connection Mastery of Relationships and Psychic Protection, and Quantum Immortality…. All the other Meditations are horse and carts to the Energy Enhancement Electric Tesla, Speeding up Your Process of Spiritual Evolution. This Card is giving Instructions on how to Remove and Transmute Energy Blockages as a major part of the Process of Transfiguration, of Illumination, the Aim and Purpose of the Energy Enhancement Meditation Course. THE ENERGY ENHANCEMENT STREAMING VIDEO BUDDHAFIELD HOME STUDY COURSE. STREAMING VIDEO BUDDHAFIELD INITIATIONS ON DEMAND. T.HE REAL THING!! FROM DON MINIHANES COURSE REPORT – LAST WEEK OF ENERGY ENHANCEMENT REIKI MASTERY OPTION. “I am now in the last week of the course and I feel like a totally different person. I have regained myself and have been given from nothing having no psychic vision at all at the start of the energy enhancement course, a clarity of psychic vision that is breathtaking.” “The energy techniques given in Energy Enhancement have never been explained to me in Aikido, Yoga or Ashtanga Yoga or on any meditation course that I have been on like Transcendental Meditation, and have only been partly taught to me previously by Taoist Master Mantak Chia and on Tantra Courses. Energy Enhancement Terminology – Energy Blockages – explain Ignorance!! The root of ignorance is Delusion, Anger and Greed, which are Energy Blockages which cut us off from the energies of the chakras above the head – Really, the removal of energy blockages is the removal of Ignorance and the start of Awareness – Energy Blockages are created by BM’s – Energy Enhancement Energy Blockages are removed by the Seven Step Process. Energy Enhancement, – An Advanced Meditation Course which gives the MOST benefits of any course of Meditational Self-Development available anywhere in the World today. ENERGY ENHANCEMENT LEVEL ONE WILL DRAMATICALLY REDUCE THEIR NEGATIVE POWER However, to remove these Energy Blockages completely, the techniques of Energy Enhancement are absolutely necessary:-. Previously, an intimate group joined me on a One Month Energy Enhancement Course including All Four Levels of Energy Enhancement including the Seven Step Process for Transmuting and Removing Energy Blockages. The Energy Enhancement FREE Energy Enhancement Infinite Wealth Home Training ProgramA step-by-step guide for Accessing your Soul and eliminating your 24 Wealth BlocksAvailable exclusively on this site, the Energy Enhancement Energy Enhancement Infinite Wealth Home Training Program is a course for eliminating each of your Wealth Blocks, one after the other, FREE, as part of. Jump start your journey into Wealth with a Four step system to open your energy fields, contact the Energy Enhancement Infinite External Chakra Energies, Access your Soul and begin the Energy Enhancement Blockage clearing process. Energy 101 – wondering what exactly is energy? Learn what it is by Energy Enhancement Direct Experience. For pricing, more details and to find out if the Energy Enhancement Consultant Certification is a good fit for you email us to be contacted by a Energy Enhancement Meditation Course Training Coordinator.

Keywords: [“Energy”,”Enhancement”,”Blockage”]
Source: http://www.energyenhancement.org

JR Test Site News for 01-23-2018

Famous People of the Enlightenment

The Enlightenment or ‘Age of Reason’ was a period in the late seventeenth century and early eighteenth century, where a group of philosophers, scientists and thinkers advocated new ideas based on reason. The Enlightenment ideas were influential forces behind the American and French revolutions. Francis Bacon English philosopher, statesman, orator and scientist. Rene Descartes Rene Descartes was a French philosopher and mathematician. Baruch Spinoza Spinoza was a Jewish-Dutch philosopher. His philosophy influenced later philosophers, writers and romantic poets, such as Shelley and Coleridge. Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant was an influential German philosopher whose ‘Critique of Pure Reason’ sought to unite reason with experience and move philosophy on from the debate between rationalists and empiricists. Kant’s philosophy was influential on future German idealists and philosophers, such as Shelling and Schopenhauer. John Locke Locke was a leading philosopher and political theorist, who had a profound impact on liberal political thought. Jean-Jacques Rousseau Rousseau was a political philosopher widely known for his ‘Social Contract’, which sought to promote a more egalitarian form of government by consent and formed the basis of modern republicanism. “Famous people of The Enlightenment”, Oxford, www. Famous People of the Renaissance The Renaissance covers the flowering of art and culture in Europe. People of the Seventeenth-Century – Famous people of the Seventeenth-Century which included the emerging European Enlightenment. People of the American Revolution – Leading figures in the American Revolution. Includes military leaders, philosophers, British protagonists and ordinary people.

Keywords: [“philosopher”,”American”,”idea”]
Source: https://www.biographyonline.net/people/famous/enlightenment.html

Socio-Economic Democracy and the World Government: Collective Capitalism, Depovertization, Human Rights, Template for Sustainable Peace

“The focus of Ghista’s book is less on confrontation and more on the development of constructive alternatives to the dominant system. There will soon be an enormous demand for books that are concrete and constructive as a decreasing number believe in the dominant system. Ghista’s book has the strength of weaving economic and political analysis together.” “Ghista’s broad-brush analysis of the world’s socio-political systems is not merely radical, or hard-hitting – it is remarkably honest and straightforward His analysis is a fascinating blend of social and political science, with a visionary zeal A brave book, with noble objectives – it very much deserves to be read.”. Edward Karani Allbless Coudert Brothers LLP. “This book is written with a deep human compassion for the Fourth Worlds, the persecuted, the poverty-stricken, the marginalized, and the truly destitute in our global society The scope is majestic: from local self-organized economic units all the way up to global world level government I applaud Ghista’s efforts and hope that he is heard All I can say is that it is about time someone wrote from this perspective!”. Pauline V Rosenau Professor of Management, Policy and Community Health University of Texas – Houston Health Science Center, USA. “At a time of profound global change, Ghista is to be warmly congratulated on an invaluable contribution for achieving peace and security in all its diverse aspects – most importantly at grassroots level This book will become required reading in schools and universities as well as in business, NGO and government circles.”

Keywords: [“book”,”Ghista”,”analysis”]
Source: http://www.worldscientific.com/worldscibooks/10.1142/5353

ROUSSEAU’S “GENERAL WILL” AND WELL-ORDERED SOCIETY

The public person formed by social contract, the republic, has a will he calls the “General will.” What it wills is the true interest of what everyone wants whether they realize it or not. The idea of the general will is at the heart of Rousseau’s philosophy. The general will is an additional will, somehow distinct from and other than any individual will or group of individual wills. The general will is, by some means, endowed with goodness and wisdom surpassing the beneficence and wisdom of any person or collection of persons. Society is coordinated and unified by the general will. Rousseau permits no disobedience of the general will once its decisions have been made. The person who “Disagrees” with the general will must be mistaken. According to Rousseau, each person wants to be good and therefore would want to obey the general will. The general will reflects the real will of each member of society. The general will is the overriding good to which each person is willing to sacrifice all other goods, including all particular private wills. The good citizen is able to identify his own will with the general will. Rousseau’s idea of the general will is related to the organic concept of the state as not merely real but more real than the individuals who live within its bounds. During the French Revolution, individuals like Robespierre were given enormous power to express the general will. Of course, dictators like Robespierre turned the general will into an expression of their own wills. Through the tutor’s disguised intentions, the student, by equating his own will with the will of his tutor, is conditioned to identify his own will with the general will.

Keywords: [“General”,”Rousseau”,”individual”]
Source: http://www.quebecoislibre.org/05/050715-16.htm

The best companies in the world are run by enlightened dictators

You do what you are told and don’t have any say in the company’s strategy and operations. Business leadership is not a popularity contest; the best companies are run by enlightened dictators. CEOs must listen very carefully to their employees but they have to do what is best for the company, employees, and shareholders. They may not agree with everything the leader decides, but as long as ethical lines are not being crossed, employees will follow directions, work hard, and be loyal. Walt Disney would ask employees for their ideas through surveys but would then dictate his requirements. He touched the hearts and minds of billions all over the world and created one of the greatest companies of its time. Steve Jobs ruled with an iron fist and demanded absolute secrecy and loyalty from his employees. The greatest technology innovator of today, Elon Musk, is a highly imperfect human being who makes extreme demands and sets unrealistic public deadlines for his employees. Then everything goes wrong; entire companies collapse. They cause employees to stop taking risks because they become fearful of making the wrong decision. If you look at any list of defunct companies that were household names, you will find misguided autocrats at their helm. There needs to be a balance between strong leadership, autonomy, and empowerment of employees. Through email, internal social media, and idea exchanges, companies can have everyone participate in problem solving. Employee engagement can be done on small decisions as well as big ones. To survive the disruptions that technologies will cause in practically industry, companies will need enlightened dictators who have a heart.

Keywords: [“Employee”,”company”,”decision”]
Source: https://qz.com/701895

JR Test Site News for 01-21-2018

B. The development of machines, including steam engines and the internal combustion engine, made it possible to exploit vast new resources of energy stored in fossil fuels, specifically coal and oil. D. As the new methods of industrial production became more common in parts of northwestern Europe, they spread to other parts of Europe and the rest of the world. E. The “Second industrial revolution” led to new methods in the production of steel, chemicals, electricity and precision machinery during the second half of the 19th century. F. The changes in the mode of production also stimulated the professionalization of sciences and led to the increasing application of science to new forms of technology. II. New patterns of global trade and production developed that further integrated the global economy as industrialists sought raw materials and new markets for the increasing amount of goods produced in their factories. C. The rapid increases in productivity caused by industrial production encouraged industrialized states to seek out new consumer markets for their finished goods. C. Rapid urbanization that accompanied global capitalism often led to unsanitary conditions, as well as to new forms of community. The growth of new empires challenged the power of existing land-based empires of Eurasia. New ideas about nationalism, race, gender, class and culture also developed that facilitated the spread of transoceanic empires and new states, as well as justified anti-imperial resistance and the formation of new communal identities. D. New states developed on the edges of an empire. These rebellions sometimes resulted in the formation of new states and stimulated the development of new ideologies. IV. The global spread of Enlightenment thought and the increasing number of rebellions stimulated new transnational ideologies and solidarities. B. Because of the nature of the new modes of transportation, both internal and external migrants increasingly relocated to cities. B. The new global capitalist economy continued to rely on coerced and semicoerced labor migration, including slavery, Chinese and Indian indentured servitude, and convict labor. B. Migrants often created ethnic enclaves, which helped transplant their culture into new environments and facilitated the development of migrant support networks.

Keywords: [“new”,”state”,”Global”]
Source: http://msgurr.weebly.com/uploads/3/8/4/9/3849258/whap.concepts.period05.pdf

End of Enlightenment? Not if we fight for it – Philosophers for Change

Perhaps the neoliberal assault on education is not the destruction of democracy, but rather something much more profound; it may be the end of the Enlightenment. Enlightenment thinkers such as Denis Diderot, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Marquis Condorcet, Mary Wollstonecraft, Thomas Jefferson and later Georg Hegel all wrote of the power of a progressive and liberal education grounded in history and the liberal arts; they wrote about civic duty, public service and the infallibility of true democracy. After the events that higher education helped to inspire in the 1960s, conservatives began an assault on public K-12 and higher education. With this in mind, the present analysis argues that the Enlightenment may be coming to an end with the assault on public education and critical thinking. While education always had economic uses, such as helping the individual secure a high paying job and being workforce trained, education – especially higher education – was always thought of as primarily a social good with the ability to enhance the commonweal. In the case of education, the policies of state governments, as well as the federal government, are the primary tools to restructure K-12 and higher education from social to market goods. Standardized testing companies and educational technology companies, which have grown into billion dollar entities and do billions of dollars of world trade, have lobbied the US government and other governments across the world to hold education accountable. Performance based funding sets up definable goals for higher education institutions to meet, such as graduation rates, graduation of STEM graduates, use of data etc. Milton Friedman once remarked that public education in the US was a socialist island in a free-market sea. More than just greed, there is an ideological element to performance based funding policies and NCLB. These policies espouse and promote a certain view of education. Conservatives are afraid of the potential of public education at all levels to inspire social change. After the events of the 1960s, it became apparent what public education was capable of. The Enlightenment is based on the notion of criticism and humanism, both of which are not valued in American public education. Zumeta, W. “What does it mean to be accountable? Dimensions and implications of higher education’s public accountability”. The writer is a doctoral student in higher education.

Keywords: [“education”,”individual”,”student”]
Source: https://philosophersforchange.org/2013/11/19/end-of-enlightenment…

Overrated Rationality is the Enlightenment Mistake

Lastly, we see in some humans a limited form of what we call consciousness or self-awareness. The philosophers of the enlightenment who created the ideas of modernity predicated their ideas on human society on the assumption that most humans are rational and self-aware. The vast majority of humans adhere to whatever ideas they are taught early in life without ever a thought. For the most part, humans thrive by banding into tight collectives and living their lives railroaded by instinctual protocols of social interaction, courtship, and rearing offspring just like pretty much any other high level social mammal. The individual as enlightenment thinkers conceive of one, is a being who hardly exists amongst humans at all. We have only to read for 15 minutes about the inbuilt cognitive biases in humans and immediately begin to recall some of the stupid decisions we’ve all made. From the erroneous underlying assumptions of human rationality and consciousness come the catastrophic ideologies spawned from the Enlightenment. Capitalism and Marxism in their various forms are portrayed often as opposites, yet both come from the same source, Enlightenment thinkers who believed societies were composed of free rational individuals. Marxism believes the masses of workers ought to rule and Capitalists believe a market formed by the purchases of the masses ought to rule. In the end, what good is all the wealth in the world if the people meant to benefit are destroyed and the sterile units of money still counted dutifully by whirring machines, oblivious to the piles of dusty bones nearby?Ultimately, humans are group selected, like other social and eusocial animals. The ideas that stand the test of time and spread are those that help one group of humans outcompete another. If we would have a successful way of improving life for most people, an idea must first provide for the spread and defense of its adopters. No ideology will have its intended results unless it is grounded in a firm understanding of how people actually are in the real world. Its adoption would depend on those more capable of consciousness subjugating those less aware and the humans most Human in the Enlightenment sense adopting rule over human animals as man establishes rule over beast. Perhaps a banker who rules over a million humans by extracting a penny from each every day through sleight of hand is the natural ruler, parasite, and predator of their herd.

Keywords: [“human”,”people”,”rule”]
Source: https://colonyofcommodus.wordpress.com/2015/11/18/overrated…

JR Test Site News for 01-20-2018

Locke: Government

John Locke’s intellectual curiosity and social activism also led him to consider issues of general public concern in the lively political climate of seventeenth-century England. Locke’s political philosophy found its greatest expression in the , published anonymously during the same year that the Essay appeared under his own name. In the Locke offered a point-by-point critique of Robert Filmer’s , a quasi-religious attempt to show that absolute monarchy is the natural system of human social organization. The develops Locke’s own detailed account of the origin, aims, and structure of any civil government. From the outset, Locke openly declared the remarkable theme of his political theory: in order to preserve the public good, the central function of government must be the protection of private property. Originally, Locke supposed, the earth and everything on it belongs to all of us in common; among perfectly equal inhabitants, all have the same right to make use of whatever they find and can use. Applying these actions to natural objects by mixing our labor with them, Locke argued, provides a clear means for appropriating them as an extension of our own personal property. The same principle of appropriation by the investment of labor can be extended to control over the surface of the earth as well, on Locke’s view. The first instance of social organization, on Locke’s view, is the development of the family, a voluntary association designed to secure the propagation of the human species through successive generations. In practice, Locke supposed that the will expressed by the majority must be accepted as determinative over the conduct of each individual citizen who consents to be governed at all. The structure or form of the government so established is a matter of relatively less importance, on Locke’s view. Since standing laws continue in force long after they have been established, Locke pointed out that the legislative body responsible for deciding what the laws should be need only meet occasionally, but the executive branch of government, responsible for ensuring that the laws are actually obeyed, must be continuous in its operation within the society. Locke’s presumption is that the legislative function of government will be vested in a representative assembly, which naturally retains the supreme power over the commonwealth as a whole: whenever it assembles, the majority of its members speak jointly for everyone in the society. The most likely cause of such a revolution, Locke supposed, would be abuse of power by the government itself: when the society unduly interferes with the property interests of the citizens, they are bound to protect themselves by withdrawing their consent. On Locke’s view the possibility of revolution is a permanent feature of any properly-formed civil society.

Keywords: [“Locke”,”state”,”individual”]
Source: http://www.philosophypages.com/hy/4n.htm

Real-World Economics Review Blog

Clearly, the enlightened capitalist press wasn’t particularly keen on showcasing the power basis of accumulation. Small businesses are being looted and taken over by the government while shortages increase and inflation soars at over 60%. Are capitalists profiting from this crisis? No just corrupt politicians and businessmen that collude with state run enterprises all of whom would never survive in a capitalist economy. The leading capitalists and their investment organs are taking over larger and larger chunks of our natural resources, human-made artefacts and collective knowledge; they formulate and steer public policy to their own advantage; and they dominate ideology, education and the mass media. Second, the very power logic of accumulation – the need to strategically sabotage others in order to increase one’s own share of the total – forces capitalists to continue and dig their own graves, so to speak. Now, of course, most capitalists, particularly the smaller ones, are unaware of and certainly won’t admit these power underpinnings of capitalism. For politically correct capitalists with substantial money to invest, Mr. X’s fund offers a carefully hedged, two-pronged strategy: buying and holding do-good companies that profit from saving the planet while shorting firms that harm the environment and governments that misallocate the world’s resources. Now, once upon a time there existed a real, undistorted capitalist system as outlined above. So who are the real capitalists? If you haven’t guessed it by now, real capitalists are those who never accumulate. To be a real capitalist, you have to either lose money or break even with enough income to survive. Many real capitalists are perfectly happy with a steady state. To see real capitalists in action, you need go to their ‘impact investing’ gatherings, where they deliberate saving the world, capitalist style. The mandate of the ‘ethical fund manager’ is simple: leverage the world’s distortions and imperfections by selling short and buying long future variations of inequality, the ups and downs of expected hunger, anticipated ecological degradation and regeneration and other assorted disasters and triumphs – and do it all in such a way that we, your capitalist clients, end up beating the holy average. The problem is that, according to the enlightened capitalist, we don’t live in the best of all possible worlds, but in one of the worst. So in the end, the only way to beat the big unreal capitalists of the distorted world is to joint them. Why not? Because such a revelation, says the ecological capitalist, would allow corrupt politicians and their crony big businessmen to discredit the no-growth capitalists, thus killing the very chance of ever achieving the homeostatic bliss…. References.

Keywords: [“capitalist”,”world”,”power”]
Source: https://rwer.wordpress.com/2014/05/01/the-enlightened-capitalist

JR Test Site News for 01-19-2018

Encyclopedia of Libertarianism

The Enlightenment developed those features of the modern world that most libertarians prize-liberal politics and free markets, scientific progress, and technological innovation. The Enlightenment took the intellectual revolutions of the early modern 17th century and transformed European and American society in the 18th century. The Enlightenment was the product of thousands of brilliant and hardworking individuals, yet two Englishmen are most often identified as inaugurating it: John Locke, for his work on reason, empiricism, and liberal politics; and Isaac Newton, for his work on physics and mathematics. Enlightenment intellectuals stressed man’s autonomy and his capacity for forming his own character-in contrast to the premodern emphasis on dependence and original sin. Most important, modern thinkers began to emphasize the individual, arguing that the individual’s mind is sovereign and that the individual is an end in himself-in contrast to the premodernist, feudal subordination of the individual to higher political, social, or religious authorities. If reason is a faculty of the individual, then individualism becomes crucial to our understanding of ethics. Enlightenment thinkers laid the foundations of all the major branches of science. During the Enlightenment, antislavery societies were formed in America in 1784, in England in 1787, and a year later in France; in 1791 and 1792, Olympe de Gouges’s Declaration of the Rights of Women and Mary Wollstonecraft’s A Vindication of the Rights of Women, landmarks in the movement for women’s liberty and equality, were published. Capitalist economics is based on the principle that individuals should be left free to make their own decisions about production, consumption, and trade. Enlightenment thinkers came to be profoundly convinced that every human problem could be solved and that the human condition could be raised to new and as-yet unimagined heights. Every individual possessed the power of reason, and education could become universal and illiteracy and superstition eliminated. Not all commentators regarded the Enlightenment as unrelievably progressive. Conservatives leveled three broad criticisms-that the Enlightenment’s rationalism undermined religious faith, that the Enlightenment’s individualism undermined communal ties, and that by overemphasizing the powers of reason and individual freedom the Enlightenment led to revolutions that instituted changes of such rapidity that they undermined social stability. Socialists also offered three criticisms-that the Enlightenment’s idolatry of science and technology led to an artificial world of dehumanizing machines and gadgets; that the Enlightenment’s competitive individualism and capitalism destroyed community and led to severe inequalities; and that the combination of science, technology, and capitalism inevitably led to technocratic oppression by the haves against the have-nots. Contemporary debates over the significance of the Enlightenment thus have a threefold character-between those who see it as a threat to an essentially religious-traditionalist vision, those who see it as a threat to an essentially Left-egalitarian vision, and those who see it as the foundation of the magnificent achievements of the modern scientific and liberal-democratic world.

Keywords: [“Enlightenment”,”individual”,”reason”]
Source: https://www.libertarianism.org/encyclopedia/enlightenment

Marriage and the Family

Marriage and the Family An Ideological Battleground An excerpt from Sexual Correctness: The Gender-Feminist Attack on Women By Wendy McElroy To the sexually correct feminist, marriage oppresses women and the family breeds patriarchy. In short, the family is the foundation of patriarchal capitalism, which gender feminists claim is the source of women’s oppression. Virtually all feminists share a belief that men and women experience the family in totally different ways. Their support….”…is deceptive and far more insidious, and has taken an enormous toll. Many women find it hard to resist the promise of a caring, equal relationship with a sympathetic man.” The truly radical assault on the family began with Kate Millett’s book Sexual Politics. “Then , there was a women’s movement that criticized…war as male ejaculation. It criticized marriage and the family as institutional crucibles of male privilege….Some criticized sex, including the institution of intercourse, as a strategy and practice in subordination.” The titles of popular feminist books from the early movement underscore the schism between gender feminists and women who chose domesticity. Gender Feminist Catharine MacKinnon describes the shift from the liberal view marriage, family and heterosexual sex: Gender feminists’ scorn for marriage and the family has not only distanced them from liberals, but from the majority of women who have chosen marriage and motherhood. Gender feminists consider marriage to be an involuntary state, in which women have the status of chattel. Engels – much quoted by Kate Millett, a pioneer of gender theory – was contemptuous of the notion that the family had subordinated women throughout history. On the family farm, it is claimed, the spheres of men’s and women’s work were indistinct. “Women have been seasoned as slaves and prostitutes…But no matter how we’re seasoned – as prostitute or as wife, which is the same thing – we’re seasoned in the patriarchal family almost exclusively to serve sexual functions.” These opinions were backed up with action. Gender feminism’s view of the family has divided women into hostile camps. Most women – however much they might want to reform marriage – do not want to abolish their husbands and children. “The earliest claims that the personal is political came from those gender feminists of the 1960s and 1970s who argued that, since the family was at the root of women’s oppression, it must be ‘smashed’.” Okin argues that the family – the so-called personal sphere – must be opened to political change, by force if necessary. What about couples who wish to maintain a more traditional marriage? What of those women who want to work out the terms of their family structure for themselves, with their husbands? Okin argues that such personal desires are irrelevant: the family is too important a social institution to be abandoned to the arbitrary wishes of the individuals involved. Regarding the issue of marriage, individualist feminism reduces to two key principles: women must retain full control of their own bodies; and, the state should have no dominion over private sexual arrangements.

Keywords: [“Women”,”Family”,”feminist”]
Source: http://www.wendymcelroy.com/sexcor/marr.html