J.R.’s Zaphne Blog News for 08-21-2018

definition of responsible by The Free Dictionary

For the loss, but he distinctly foreshadowed the very thing that caused it. For the planet’s traffic, cannot make allowance for this kind of misfortune. For what then happened; and that I have but myself to blame for having been either unable or unwilling to defend my honour. Why, he must have thought it, unless he IS the downrightest fool in the world; because if he hadn’t thought it, he would have wanted to own the whole dog, knowing that if he killed his half and the other half died, he would be responsible. For that half just the same as if he had killed that half instead of his own. 

For this report which had reached the ears of Lorquas Ptomel so quickly, and now I recalled those portions of our conversation which had touched upon escape and upon my origin. He thought unconsciously, seeking someone responsible. For this suffering for him to punish; but there was no one responsible. Nothing can be wiser in that kingdom, than to annex to the king a constitutional council, who may be responsible. For my having become the head of the Order; they shall feel my vengeance. 

Keywords: [“responsible”,”half”,”thought”]
Source: https://www.thefreedictionary.com/responsible

Christianity vs Islam: Chart of Similarities and Differences

The final revelation of God to all of mankind given through the archangel Gabriel to Muhammad over a 23 year period. We are sinners, but God loves us, Jesus died for us; believe in him and you are saved. God is a trinity of persons: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. The Trinity is not three gods in one god, nor is it one person who took three forms. One God in three persons: Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. 

A very great prophet, second only to Muhammad. Jesus is not the son of God, not divine and was not crucified. The sacrifice of Christ on the cross whereby His blood becomes the sacrifice that turns away the wrath of God from the sinner when he believes and receives by faith the work of Christ on the cross. Heaven is the eventual and eternal home of the Christians who are saved by God’s grace. Occurs on the day of resurrection when God will judge all people. 

All people are sinless until they rebel against God. A free gift of God to the person who trusts in Christ and His sacrifice on the cross. God forgives any and all when asked, but humans must also forgive. 

Keywords: [“God”,”Muslim”,”Christian”]
Source: http://www.swapmeetdave.com/Bible/Christianity-Islam-chart.htm

Yet Another Attempt to Make the World a Better Place by Writing Things

Today the Supreme Court voted, 5-4, to enable public sector workers to unilaterally withhold contributions from their unions. The principle guiding the majority’s decision is simple and intuitively appealing. When workers pay unions dues, those unions use that money to fund political speech. Individual workers may not agree with the union’s speech acts, and therefore compelling them to pay dues ties their employment to their willingness to espouse a particular kind of political speech with their wallets. The court argues that requiring workers to make certain kinds of political speech acts with their wallets to retain employment violates their free speech rights. 

The argument is internally valid-it makes sense, given a particular conception of individual freedom. The trouble is that this conception of individual freedom is destabilising the labour market in a politically dangerous way, and in consistently choosing to interpret this principle in this way the court is threatening the legitimacy of the state. 

Keywords: [“speech”,”unions”,”workers”]
Source: https://benjaminstudebaker.com

Condemnation versus Conviction

A lot of believers hear condemning thoughts, and some believers even think it’s God telling them these things. My friend, nothing could be further from the truth! God NEVER tells you what a loser you are. Jesus said He came not to condemn the world, but to save it! Condemnation comes from Satan and is meant to tear you down. 

Condemnation continually points out what a failure you are, and how badly you’ve messed up. Condemnation is showing you the problem, but avoiding the solution. God’s Word tells us that Godly sorrow is what leads us to repentance. Conviction shows you the blood of Jesus that wipes away your sins! Conviction shows you the answer, while condemnation shows you the problem. 

Condemnation shows you the problem, but conviction shows you the answer. It’s so important to understand the nature of God’s forgiveness and His desire to wash us clean from our pasts. The Forgiveness of Sins is a great teaching that will show you the nature of God’s forgiveness. 

Keywords: [“God”,”sins”,”show”]
Source: http://www.greatbiblestudy.com/condemnation_conviction.php

Define Compassionate at Dictionary.com

See more synonyms on Thesaurus.com adjective. Having or showing compassion: a compassionate person; a compassionate letter. Granted in an emergency: compassionate military leave granted to attend a funeral. SynonymsSee more synonyms on Thesaurus.com. I know there are police officers who are kind, compassionate. 

People were attracted to early Christianity by its compassionate. Such is the Sierra Leonean way, the most tolerant, compassionate. Historical ExamplesOur Government must at the same time be both competent and compassionate…Were you to know how I have suffered, you would be compassionate…He was quite incapable of any compassionate. Not one to save her,-not one of all the compassionate. The others looked at him and smiled with an air of compassionate. 

British Dictionary definitions for compassionateadjective. Showing or having compassion.compassionate leave. 

Keywords: [“compassionate”,”leave”,”Granted”]
Source: http://www.dictionary.com/browse/compassionate

J.R.’s Zaphne Blog News for 05-30-2018

Can capitalism be compassionate?

For an individual a concept like Kurtosis would have no meaning. Private ownership allows for exchange between individuals. An objection may be that we are dealing only with numbers, but if those numbers were actually pointing to individuals, and referred to each individuals’ height, then the Quicksort process could still not be compassionate, kind, or just. If I, as an individual, were to choose my own method to sort those individuals’ heights, then I could choose a method that is compassionate or that is not. There is no method, or rules of conduct, that the sickly individual could observe which would at the same time allow him or her to secure food without making it more scarce for others. 

We can consider how individuals seek other individuals to partner with and marry. Most would not object to allowing individuals to choose their own partner, but we would be likely to object if one partner forced another partner to be with them. They were simply pursuing their own individual interests. Many thousands of years ago, the individuals of the human species in their technological infancy could only look at those outside of their immediate family, or perhaps tribe, as competitors for the scarce resources nature chanced to provide. It is only when one human conceives that he or she, or his or her immediate family or tribe, could be better off by exchanging with another individual from an altogether different family or tribe, that compassion can begin to develop between humans outside of immediate families or tribes, because they no longer need to view each other as competitors for scare resources, they’ve developed a new abstract relationship- a relationship of exchange for mutual benefit. 

Individuals who engage in a great deal of trade with one another tend to have strong relationships, and to share similar interests. Those individuals who do not engage in trade with one another have no such mutual interests. 

Keywords: [“Individual”,”partner”,”process”]
Source: https://www.quora.com/Can-capitalism-be-compassionate

Love And Compassion Will Save Us When AI Takes Our Jobs

As artificial intelligence swiftly creeps into the mainstream, it will take over jobs. The first to go will be things like data analysis and retail operations, followed by more complex endeavors like driving. The advent of AI is often discussed as something of a selective guillotine falling on our employment ecosystem: Either your job is knocked out, or its spared. A former Google, Apple, and Microsoft employee turned venture capitalist with a speciality in artificial intelligence, sees a more humanistic way to integrate AI into our economies. Lee, during the height of his career, put work above all else, he tells the audience at TED 2018 in Vancouver. 

As he worked on artificial intelligence systems, he thought of them as ways to streamline routine work to create more room for innovation, and his job, as one of the early developers of these technologies, was to innovate faster and better to support this future. That changed when Lee was diagnosed with stage-four lymphoma several years ago. He was given just several months to live, and as he underwent chemotherapy, he read books on how people approached the end of life. He’s now in remission, but his experience with life-threatening illness caused him to think about work in new ways. It’s a nice idea, and certainly true-we’re facing a shortage of teachers, whose jobs will be crucial in bolstering young peoples’ abilities to participate in modern economies, and caretakers for the elderly will become ever more important as lifespans extend. 

The jobs that Lee cited during his talk as replacements for those made redundant by AI are notoriously underpaid, and often lack critical benefits like health care. If we’re going to follow Lee’s recommendation, we should be sure to do so alongside implementing stronger financial securities for people working these jobs-ideally, in the form of a universal basic income and universal benefits. 

Keywords: [“job”,”work”,”Lee”]
Source: https://www.fastcompany.com/40558634/love-and-compassion-will-save…

Exclusive: Illinois Khilafah Conference “Capitalism is to Blame”

The 2012 Khilafah Islamic Conference got off to a rocky start. The conference was originally scheduled to be held at The Meadows Club in Rolling Meadows, Illinois, however after the Chicago Daily Herald reported the agenda and location of the event, all hell broke loose with the owner of the Meadows Club, who was inundated with countless calls and emails from the public opposed to this conference. Angry residents warned that there would be large protests if he allowed the conference to be held at that location. The owner conceded and cancelled the event, which then moved to a new location, The Lexington House, Hickory Hills, IL. According to the American Muslim Forum for Democracy, Hizb-ut-Tahrir, the group that hosts the meeting, is a radical origination that promotes world-wide jihad, and targets young children to join their movement. 

The following excerpt comes from AMFD’s 2009 call for Muslim organizations to denounce and condemn the Hizb-ut-Tahrir. American Capitalism has caused all that is wrong with the Muslim world today. The Capitalist System was created to restrict Muslims. Jews and Christians will not be happy with Muslims until they adopt their way of life. Obama failed on two issues, Palestine and dealing with the entire Muslim world. 

That they are a peaceful non-violent movement while viewing the diagram on the overhead projector showing the structure of the Sharia governing cabinet, it listed a private secretary in charge of Jihad. To my surprise, I found myself being the only American reporter at the conference along with two other foreign reporters. We were not allowed to use any video or audio equipment while the conference was being held. Afterwards Dr. Mohammed Malkawi aka Abu Talha took questions from us and consented to audio recording of the interview. 

Keywords: [“Muslim”,”Conference”,”held”]
Source: http://rebelpundit.com/exclusive-illinois-khilafah-conference-capitalism…

JR Test Site News for 01-23-2018

Download] ebooks a force for good how enlightened…in capitalism pdf A FORCE FOR GOOD HOW ENLIGHTENED…IN CAPITALISM A force for good how enlightened…in capitalism – , etc. How To Download A Force For Good How Enlightened…in Capitalism For Free? ca p ita lis m No wonder you activities are, reading will be always needed. Reading a force for good how enlightened…in capitalism is also a way as one of the collective books that gives many advantages. Ed … in If you really want to know the ways of getting this book, you can follow to read this sales letter. In this case, a force for good how enlightened…in capitalism is one of the products that we present. There are still lots of books from many countries, hundreds of authors with remarkable tiles. They are all provided in the links for getting the soft file of each book. En lig ht en We present the book is based on the reasons that will influence you to live better. Even you have already the reading book; you can also enrich the knowledge by getting them form a force for good how enlightened…in capitalism. This is actually a kind of book that not only offers the inspirations. It is why you need to read this book, even page by page to the finish. A fo rc ef or go od ho w Many people may have different reason to read some books. What kind of reason of you to read this remarkable a force for good how enlightened…in capitalism? It will depend on how you stare and think about it. Just get this book now and be one of the amazing readers of this book. A force for good how enlightened…in capitalism ebooks Page : 1 ..

Keywords: [“how”,”book”,”capitalism”]
Source: http://leorad.de/a/…/a_force_for_good_how_enlightened…in_capitalism.pdf

Difference Between Mitosis and Meiosis

Meiosis and Mitosis describe cell division in eukaryotic cells when the chromosome separates. In mitosis chromosomes separates and form into two identical sets of daughter nuclei, and it is followed by cytokinesis. Basically, in mitosis the mother cell divides into two daughter cells which are genetically identical to each other and to the parent cell. “1. Interface -where cell prepares for cell division and it also includes three other phases such as G1, S, and G22. Prophase ‘” formation of centrosomes, condensation of chromatin. Metaphase- alignment of chromosomes at the metaphase plate. Telophase- de-condensation of chromosomes and surrounded by nuclear membranes, formation of cleavage furrow. Meiosis is a reductional cell division where the number of chromosomes is divided into half. Gametes formations occur in animal cell and meiosis is necessary for sexual reproduction which occurs in eukaryotes. Meiosis influence stable sexual reproduction by halving of ploidy or chromosome count. Meiosis I ‘” separation of homologous chromosomes and production of two haploid cells2. Anaphase I – shortening of microtubules, pulling of chromosomes toward opposing poles, forming two haploid sets.5. Telophase I – arrival of chromosomes to the poles with each daughter cell containing half the number of chromosomes. Meiosis II – second part of the meiotic process with the production of four haploid cells from the two haploid cells. “Summary:Mitosis ‘” separation of chromosomes into two identical sets of daughter cells. Meiosis- reductional cell division and the number of chromosomes is divided into half; it is essential for sexual reproduction, and therefore it occurs in eukaryotes.

Keywords: [“chromosome”,”cell”,”Meiosis”]
Source: http://www.differencebetween.net/miscellaneous/difference-between…

FC67: The Crusades & their impact

There were several reasons for the Crusades happening when they did. While the Crusades were the most dramatic and publicized example of Europe’s expanding frontiers, there was similar expansion by Spanish Christians in Spain, by the Normans in Southern Italy and Sicily, and by the Germans in Eastern Europe. The rising power of the Church at this time was another factor leading to the Crusades. The first crusader state to fall was Edessa in 1144, which promptly triggered the Second Crusade to recover it. This brought on a series of crusades that failed to take Jerusalem or hold it for any substantial time. Later crusades tended to stray further and further from their goal of Jeruslam. The Fourth Crusade was diverted by the Venetians to Constantinople, partly to cover the cost of transporting the crusaders, and partly because of growing tensions with the Byzantines over the growing Italian stranglehold on Byzantine trade. Besides never reaching Palestine, the Fourth Crusade set in motion the final decline of the Byzantine Empire and deprived the crusaders of a potentially valuable ally. Interest in the crusades fizzled out for a couple of reasons. The popes had gotten into the habit of declaring crusades against heretics in Europe and their mortal enemies, the German emperors. For all intents and purposes, the age of Crusades was over. Despite their failure, the crusades had important results. On a more basic level, the Crusades stimulated an increased desire for luxury goods from the East. Thus, the Crusades, by helping lead to the Renaissance and Age of Exploration, were instrumental in opening the way to the modern world. For the Arab world, the Crusades had less positive results.

Keywords: [“Crusade”,”Muslim”,”Europe”]
Source: http://www.flowofhistory.com/units/west/10/FC67

JR Test Site News for 01-22-2018

Capitalism Key to Fighting Muslim Extremism

Recent years have seen the tentative emergence of a middle class throughout the Muslim world. For too long, standards of living have been falling in many parts of the Muslim world. In the 1960s, on average no more than a third of the populations of large Muslim countries such as Turkey, Iran, or Pakistan lived in cities, and by most estimates no more than 6 percent of the populations counted as middle class. The signs of this emerging middle class and the capitalist surge it’s helping to drive can be found everywhere in the Muslim world, even war-torn Beirut and fundamentalist Tehran. The problem in the Muslim world until now has been that the tiny middle class has had few ties to free markets and has depended on state salaries and entitlements. Turkey has already arrived at the future; it is a successful Muslim democracy fully integrated into the global economy. The growth of such services is tying the Muslim world more closely to the global economy. Terrorism as a whole will stop resonating with a truly integrated Muslim middle class-a process similar to what occurred in Latin America in the 1990s. It holds the key to changing the hearts and minds of the Muslim world once and for all. It’s too soon to say whether Muslim businessmen in Lahore, Tehran, or Cairo will lead a full-fledged capitalist revolution akin to that spearheaded by Protestant burghers in Holland four centuries ago. European history does suggest that only such actors and the robust breed of capitalism they embrace have a chance of truly modernizing the Muslim world. The agents who will vanquish Muslim extremism will not be secular dictators, enlightened clerics, or liberal reformers but entrepreneurs and businessmen. If moderate, capitalist values have not yet been fully embraced in Muslim lands, that’s not because of the fundamental nature of Islam, but because the commercial class leading the process is still too small. To encourage the middle-class Muslim revolution the West should help free Muslim economies from the clutches of state control. The West, in return, should open its markets to products from the Muslim world and ensure that the money it pours into the region goes to support the right kind of change.

Keywords: [“Muslim”,”middle”,”class”]
Source: http://www.newsweek.com/capitalism-key-fighting-muslim-extremism-81255

enlightenment: Rethinking the Essence of Objectivism

This essay will attempt to understand Rand’s method by analyzing her views on the essence of Objectivism. Although the identification of the essence of Objectivism has been dealt with by Rand, Peikoff, Kelley and others; I believe that further analysis of this subject can yield deeper insights into Rand’s methodology. Although Rand did not leave us a detailed analysis of the concept “Essence” or of Objectivism’s essence, we do have some insightful comments. In summary, Rand wrote only briefly on the essence of Objectivism and identified it either as the fundamentals of her positions in the major branches of philosophy, or as the method of reason. I think that this critique of Rand’s views on essence is warranted because her ideas on essence form the basis for extensions by philosophers David Kelley and Leonard Peikoff, and the general topic of the essence of Objectivism has hardly been discussed in the 1990s. I see at least four types of interrelated arguments that can be brought against Rand’s views on the essence of Objectivism. Objectivity does not appear to permit physics to have a system essence similar to Rand’s essence of Objectivism. We need to clearly distinguish objectivity from reason and logic in order to understand its importance in the essence of Objectivism. Rand’s statement of the essence of Objectivism appears to be a “Wide essence” because it proposes a list of indispensable attributes. A narrow essence of Objectivism could not include politics and economics which are derived from ethics, epistemology and metaphysics. Which type of essence should be important to us? If we want an outline of the system, then the wide essence will certainly serve our purpose. This suggests an answer as to why Rand appears to hold simultaneously that the essence of Objectivism is both a system and a method. Rand’s essence of Objectivism is a problem here because it appears to emphasize system over method. With 30 years of hindsight, and both feet planted firmly on the ground, is it possible to revise Rand’s essence of Objectivism to answer all of the criticisms that I have thrown at it? I think so. Several other nagging problems presented by Rand’s essence of Objectivism are resolved.

Keywords: [“essence”,”Rand”,”system”]
Source: http://enlightenment.supersaturated.com/essays/text/davesaum/essence.html

Adam Smith: an Enlightened Life

Adam Smith’s best-known book, An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, still exerts an extraordinary influence, well over 200 years after it was first published in 1776. Very few of the documents that form the biographer’s usual raw materials survive in Smith’s case – not least because that was how he wanted it. Smith embarked on his intellectual career at the universities of Glasgow and Oxford with the Jacobite Rebellion and its brutal aftermath still a raw memory. Between them, Smith and his esteemed mentor David Hume made Scotland one of the hubs of an age of intellectual discovery. For all the absence of personal details about Smith himself, it’s a lively story, sketched out cleverly in this book. Smith’s ideas are the heart of the matter for Phillipson. A number of other books published in the past decade have already tried to undo the free-market caricature of Smith’s thought by emphasising his other, less popular masterpiece, The Theory of Moral Sentiments, first published in 1759. Phillipson goes on to show that both books formed just a small part of Smith’s ambitious intellectual project. Like Hume, Smith drew on the scientific discoveries of the Enlightenment, on the new empiricism, and on all the intellectual ferment of the time, exemplified in groups such as Edinburgh’s Philosophical Society. Tantalisingly, Smith wrote in a letter at the age of 62: “The materials of both are in a great measure collected, and some part of both is put in tolerable good order.” But he added that he doubted he would finish, because of the indolence of old age. In setting out the scope of his subject’s intellectual goals, Phillipson has portrayed an Adam Smith for our times. Perhaps every generation gets the Smith it is looking for. Men like Smith and Hume did not regard the study of human visual perception, say, as a field of endeavour separate from and unrelated to the study of the division of labour. In their own time, Smith and Hume were frowned upon for their lack of Christian belief, and few believed that analysing society was a properly scientific endeavour. Human nature hasn’t changed; Smith’s question is still the one to answer.

Keywords: [“Smith”,”book”,”human”]
Source: https://www.newstatesman.com/books/2010/08/adam-smith-intellectual

JR Test Site News for 01-21-2018

Restoring Reciprocity: How the Nonprofit Sector Can Help Save Capitalism from Itself

The need for welfare protections led to the development of social forces-and indeed the nonprofit sector itself-as a way to generate those social protections. For nonprofits, this means we must find our voice to protect core social values and help create new systems of social protections. Second, many of the problems nonprofits are trying to fix exist because some businesses create negative externalities, essentially privatizing profits while socializing costs. Perhaps most importantly, we should care because nonprofits offer at least parts of a model for how to restore reciprocity to commerce. We need to enlarge the scope of political conversation to include such questions as: How shall we re-integrate market forces into society so that they can be constructive and not disruptive-and yet go beyond the traditional regulatory schemes for restoring trust and lending? In the emerging post-neoliberal environment, what new and better ways can we devise for blending government, markets and the commons? Could the decentralized participation of the Internet be leveraged to enable greater self-policing of markets, greater transparency in transactions, and greater trust among consumers, investors and taxpayers? While nonprofits have been admonished over the past two decades to act more like businesses, it is business that must learn to operate more like nonprofits if they are to be sustainable. Sadly, as we know all too well, not all nonprofits operate mutualistically. The nonprofit sector must lead the way by demonstrating-and demanding- that businesses embrace reciprocal exchange. Develop capacity to clearly articulate the premise of nonprofit exchange-mutualism and reciprocity. The logic of nonprofit organizations is to benefit all parties in transactions. When nonprofits help clients improve their lives, their expanded capabilities and agency set of a cascade effect of positive outcomes for themselves, their families, communities, and the economy. New skills we must develop include recognizing and understanding how things are interconnected, the important role of time as a strategic variable, how effects at the micro level can produce macro level changes, feedback loops, and how order can arise through self-organization rather than command and control. Accountability and reporting frameworks such as Integrated Reporting offer nonprofits new ways to think about and tell the story of how these multiple forms of capital create value while producing social and financial returns simultaneously. It is therefore paramount that the nonprofit sector find its voice and articulate its values of equity and reciprocity. Nonprofits must become sensegivers, helping commerce make new meaning of its exchange practices.

Keywords: [“nonprofit”,”social”,”such”]
Source: https://nonprofitquarterly.org/2017/10/31/restoring-reciprocity…

*The Islamic Enlightenment*

In the conventional narrative, the battle woke up the whole Muslim world from its long and haughty slumber. Under current conditions of political correctness the very subject smells a little of sulfur: What if we looked at Muslim societies more closely and we found in them some sort of intrinsic inferiority? I mean by this, an inferiority that could not easily be blamed on the interference of Western, Christian or formerly Christian, capitalist societies. Of course, such a finding could only be subjective but still, many would not like it, and not only Muslims. De Bellaigue gives us in rich particulars the attempts to modernize in three well chosen Muslim countries and, to a lesser extent, elsewhere in the Muslim world. The classic image of the Muslim modernizer is of an irascible man in mess boots, a man who is impatient with his compatriots’ old-fashioned mode of dress and their backsliding, malingering attitude to hard work; an impulsive friend of modern values who, while being perhaps a little rough in his methods, answers with admirable clarity to the summons of progress. DB tells the same basic story over and over about Egypt, Turkey, Iran and, in a small way, about other Muslim countries: More or less enlightened despots – often under the influence of enthusiastically westernized scholars – attempt to shake their societies out of their century-old torpor. DB’s thesis of reactive modernization in Muslim lands is not completely persuasive. In the end, what DB is pleased to call “Enlightenment” resulted in the reduction of private freedoms in most Muslim societies. Curiously the latter country was rigorously colonized in the 19th century and situated far from the reach of early Muslim modernizers; another story, obviously. Any older observer will tell you that many more women currently wear the hijab in big Muslim cities than was the case fifty years ago. Commentators often blame the destruction of Baghdad by the Mongols in 1258, and also the fall of the last Muslim Kingdom in Spain, Granada, in 1492, for the end of that Muslim Golden Age. After the failure to enlighten the Muslim countries he examines, DB should have gone one step further and ask the obvious. A personal comment about a fact that is relevant to the inquiry although only tangentially so: I have known Muslims all of my long life, in France where I was raised, in the US where I emigrated, and in other countries, including several Muslim countries where I spent time. There is something in Muslim culture, beyond national and linguistic differences within the Islamic world, that is very attractive. I learned a great deal about the history of Muslim societies in this book but not much about the absence of an Islamic Enlightenment.

Keywords: [“Muslim”,”country”,”book”]
Source: https://notesonliberty.com/2017/12/16/the-islamic-enlightenment-a…

JR Test Site News for 01-20-2018

Post-modernism, post-modernity and education

In modern times we have looked towards the evolution of society as a progressive one. In the late 1970s, a movement began amongst French intellectuals, that questioned this view of society as moving onwards and upwards, and that there was some unseen driving force within society. Had the ideas of the Enlightenment brought us to this? If it had, they thought, to what extent had it been justified by grand theories of society? Wasn’t it more appropriate to see these theories as quite dangerous? They also felt that if modernism had brought in the type of society loosely described as modern industrial society then surely we had now gone beyond it? Had we not now entered a new age – the age of post-modernism? Many people accept that we do live in a different kind of society today to that of a relatively few years ago. The concept of the post-industrial society is linked with the work of Daniel Bell. Disorganised capitalism, which is how Lash and Urry characterised today’s society, consists of the disintegration of state regulation, the expansion of world markets dominated by multinational corporations, the undermining of the nation state, the growth of manufacturing in the Third World and the decline of manufacturing in the West. The disintegration of the role of the state, particularly in welfare provision; the erosion of trade unionism and the growth of individualism and consumerism; the globalisation of the market and manufacturing; the development and growing influence of the multinational corporation all point to a qualitative change in society. These are identities that are socially constructed, and given meaning by our fragmented society. Welcoming cultural diversity within our changed society does not mean accepting cultural practices and beliefs without question. Michel Foucault, for example, argued at one point that human societies can be seen as places in which forms of knowledge exercise power over us through the way we think and the way we behave. At the same time it has brought to the surface a multitude of different perspectives on society and an appreciation of different cultures. Industrial society is based on the distribution of goods, while that of a risk society on the distribution of ‘bads’ or dangers. Part one is concerned with ‘living on the volcano of civization: the contours of the risk society; part two looks to the individualization of social inequality: life forms and the demise of tradition; and part three explores reflexive modernization: the generalization of science and politics. Part one deals with cosmopolitan narratives; part two with representation and the transformation of identity; part three with spaces of self and society; and part four looks to modernity and the voice of the other. The usual trip through postmodern thinking is followed by an analysis of the ways in which specific discourses of change have been constructed to provide the basis for a growing interest in lifelong learning and a learning society.

Keywords: [“society”,”world”,”new”]
Source: http://infed.org/mobi/post-modernism-and-post-modernity

The Islamic Enlightenment: A Critical Review of De Bellaigue

In the conventional narrative, the battle woke up the whole Muslim world from its long and haughty slumber. Under current conditions of political correctness the very subject smells a little of sulfur: What if we looked at Muslim societies more closely and we found in them some sort of intrinsic inferiority? I mean by this, an inferiority that could not easily be blamed on the interference of Western, Christian or formerly Christian, capitalist societies. Of course, such a finding could only be subjective but still, many would not like it, and not only Muslims. De Bellaigue gives us in rich particulars the attempts to modernize in three well chosen Muslim countries, and to a lesser extent, elsewhere in the Muslim world. “The classic image of the Muslim modernizer is of an irascible man in mess boots, a man who is impatient with with his compatriots’ old-fashioned mode of dress and their backsliding, malingering attitude to hard work, an impulsive friend of modern values who, while being perhaps a little rough in his methods answers with admirable clarity to the summons of progress. That image took well over a century to develop and was embodied by figures as diverse as Reza Shah of Iran, King Amanullah of Afghanistan, and the founder of modern Turkey, Mustafa Kemal Ataturk.” DB tells the same basic story over and over about Egypt, Turkey, Iran and, in a small way, about other Muslim countries: More or less enlightened despots – often under the influence of enthusiastically westernized scholars – attempt to shake their societies out of their century-old torpor. DB’s thesis of reactive modernization in Muslim lands is not completely persuasive. In the end, what DB’ is pleased to call “Enlightenment” resulted in the reduction of private freedoms in most Muslim societies. Curiously the latter country was rigorously colonized in the 19th century and situated far from the reach of early Muslim modernizers; another story, obviously. Any older observer will tell you that many more women currently wear the hijab in big Muslim cities than was the case fifty years ago. Commentators often blame the destruction of Baghdad by the Mongols in 1258, and also the fall of the last Muslim Kingdom in Spain, Granada, in 1492, for the end of that Muslim Golden Age. After the failure to enlighten the Muslim countries he examines, DB should have gone one step further and ask the obvious. A personal comment about a fact that is relevant to the inquiry although only tangentially so: I have known Muslims all of my long life, in France where I was raised, in the US where I emigrated, and in other countries, including several Muslim countries where I spent time. There is something in Muslim culture, beyond national and linguistic differences within the Islamic world, that is very attractive. In conclusion: a learned great deal about the history of Muslim societies in this book but not much about the absence of an Islamic Enlightenment.

Keywords: [“Muslim”,”country”,”book”]
Source: https://factsmatter.wordpress.com/2017/12/17/the-islamic…