J.R.’s Zaphne Blog News for 08-18-2018

Nurse Quotes, Sayings about Nurses & Nursing, Quotations for Nurses Day

Authentic service can be seen in the nurse who has nurtured herself, the healer who has been healed. Constant attention by a good nurse may be just as important as a major operation by a surgeon. The trained nurse has become one of the great blessings of humanity, taking a place beside the physician and the priest…. ~William Osler. Nurses dispense comfort, compassion, and caring without even a prescription. Bound by paperwork, short on hands, sleep, and energy… 

nurses are rarely short on caring. After two days in the hospital, I took a turn for the nurse. When you’re a nurse you know that every day you will touch a life or a life will touch yours. You know you’re a nurse if… you triage the laundry when at home: This pile needs immediate attention, the pile can wait, this pile, with a little stain stick will be OK until you get back to it. 

Whether a person is a male or female, a nurse is a nurse. If Christian scientists had more science and doctors more Christianity, it wouldn’t make any difference which you called in – if you had a good nurse. A nurse will always give us hope,an angel with a stethoscope. Nurses don’t wait until October to celebrate Make a Difference Day – they make a difference every day! ~Author unknown. 

Keywords: [“nurse”,”day”,”know”]
Source: http://www.quotegarden.com/nurses.html

Buddhist Culture, The Cultured Buddhist

The Buddhist Publication Society is an approved charity dedicated to making known the Teaching of the Buddha, which has a vital message for people of all creeds. Founded in 1958, the BPS has published a wide variety of books and booklets covering a great range of topics. Its publications include accurate annotated translations of the Buddha’s discourses, standard reference works, as well as original contemporary expositions of Buddhist thought and practice. These works present Buddhism as it truly is – a dynamic force which has influenced receptive minds for the past 2500 years and is still as relevant today as it was when it first arose. You may copy, reformat, reprint, republish, and redistribute this work in any medium whatsoever, provided that: you only make such copies, etc. 

Available free of charge and, in the case of reprinting, only in quantities of no more than 50 copies; you clearly indicate that any derivatives of this work are derived from this source document; and you include the full text of this license in any copies or derivatives of this work. Documents linked from this page may be subject to other restrictions. Transcribed from a file provided by the BPS. Last revised for Access to Insight on 30 November 2013. 

Keywords: [“work”,”copy”,”any”]
Source: https://accesstoinsight.org/lib/authors/bogoda/bl139.html

A Snapshot of Key Ethical Theories

Ethical theory serves as the foundation for ethical solutions to the difficult situations people encounter in life. For centuries, philosophers have come up with theoretical ways of telling right from wrong and for giving guidelines about how to live and act ethically. Living an ethical life, or acting rightly, requires developing and demonstrating the virtues of courage, compassion, wisdom, and temperance. Thus, acting rightly involves maximizing the amount of happiness and minimizing the amount of suffering around you. Kantianism emphasizes the principles behind actions rather than an action’s results. 

Acting rightly thus requires being motivated by proper universal principles that treat everyone with respect. When you’re motivated by the right principles, you overcome your animal instincts and act ethically. So for contract theorists, ethics isn’t necessarily about character, consequences, or principles. Care ethics focuses ethical attention on relationships before other factors. As a result, acting rightly involves building, strengthening, and maintaining strong relationships. 

Acting rightly thus displays care for others and for the relationships of which they are a part. To care ethicists, relationships are fundamental to ethical thinking. 

Keywords: [“act”,”Ethical”,”rightly”]
Source: https://www.dummies.com/education/philosophy/a-snapshot-of-key…

Jean-Jacques Rousseau: We are Good by Nature but Corrupted by Society

Jean-Jacques Rousseau believed that man is naturally good and that vice and error are alien to him. According to Rousseau, nature is man’s state before being influenced by outside forces. The correct balance of these three categories in human nature, enables man to develop naturally. The Education of man, for example, what we are taught,. Rousseau claims that outside influences, for example, society and custom, are responsible for deviations from natural, healthy development in humans and this creates a dilemma. 

Rousseau attempts to present an individual as a whole as both true citizen and heroic mother, stretching credibility to its limits. She has repressed her natural behaviour – and this is a problem for Rousseau’s attempt to reconcile citizen and man. Rousseau believes the education of man commences at birth and that experience is the forerunner of the precept. There is a free choice to be made here, according to Rousseau; man may do good or evil. Natural religion, Rousseau, feels, has been tampered with and worship made too ceremonial. 

There are contradictions in Rousseau’s attempts to reconcile nature with society. His greatest work was The Social Contract about freeing man from his chains through the creation of an ideal society. 

Keywords: [“man”,”Rousseau”,”Nature”]
Source: http://decodedpast.com/jean-jacques-rousseau-good-nature-corrupted…

J.R.’s Zaphne Blog News for 08-17-2018

Buddhist responses to environmental concerns

As many religious people view it, Buddhist reality is profoundly ecological, and Buddhism itself is an ecological religion. It powerfully expresses human identification with nature. Buddhists believe that all things, including humans, exist by their interrelationship with all other parts of nature To think of one’s self as isolated from the rest of nature is be unrealist. Buddhist teachers and masters constantly remind us of the importance of living in tune with nature and respecting life. Buddhist precepts direct the faithful to seek a right livelihood, an essential dimension of which is concern for the life of all creatures. 

This is the first of the five precepts of Buddhist life and a major principle of Jainism. In practice, Buddhists believe that it is the act of killing or hurting an animal which is harmful, but not the eating of meat that someone else has provided. Note that the Buddhist king Asoka the Great established hospitals for both human and animals. Compassion is the basis for a balanced view of the whole world and of the environment. Wanton destruction upsets the vital balance of life. 

Climate change is caused by over-consumption of fossil fuels, loss of soil, and excessive herds of livestock. 4.A search of the Amazon.com data base shows the following books on Buddhist responses to the environment:At least, it should. 

Keywords: [“Buddhist”,”life”,”nature”]
Source: http://www.religioustolerance.org/tomek20.htm

Q&A: What is biblical social justice?

In our Mission Essentials series, last week, Dorli Gschwandtner described how, in some parts of the world, evangelism, compassionate ministry and social action are necessarily so intertwined that they would not be viewed by local Nazarenes as separate in any way. We will continue to wrestle with this topic in the coming weeks after the year-end holidays. Check back in January for the latest installment in this topic of Mission Essentials. Bible studyYou can explore this topic with your small group or Sunday school by accessing a six-lesson video study guide called Seek Social Justice: Transforming Lives in Need, featuring the J.V. Morsch Center for Social Justice at Trevecca. 

Download the lessons and video guide for free at www. Seeksocialjustice.com, or purchase a copy at LifeWay Christian online bookstore. Mission EssentialsMission Essentials is an original series produced by Engage magazine to refresh Nazarenes globally in our shared understanding of what it means to participate in God’s mission to the world. New articles, contributed by voices from all six world regions in the denomination, are published in Engage throughout each month from August 2011 through March 2012. Find all the articles organized into an archive by clicking the Mission Essentials logo on the right-hand of the front page. 

Keywords: [“Mission”,”Essentials”,”topic”]
Source: http://engagemagazine.com/content/qa-what-biblical-social-justice

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Keywords: [“solution”,”answer”,”manual”]
Source: http://cewede.de/compassionate/capitalism/compassionate_capitalism_barnes…

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Keywords: [“answer”,”Solution”,”question”]
Source: http://virpro.de/compassionate/capitalism/compassionate_capitalism_marc_r…

Capitalism vs. Socialism: A Crab Cannot Birth A Bird

Here’s an old Ga proverb to nudge us in the correct direction: Kaa Fɔɔɔ Loflɔ. That is, one cannot expect a crab to give birth to a bird. You also cannot expect a capitalist nation to act in a socialist way. For instance you cannot expect a nation that claims to be capitalist to endorse, and enforce, a minimum wage for all. If it does, the nation is not capitalist! 

That nation can call itself something else, but it is not capitalist. There’s also the flip-side of the Ga proverb: Kaa Fɔɔɔ Loflɔ. If one encounters a baby bird, one can conclude with certainty that the baby bird is an offspring of birds, not crabs. If one encounters a baby crab, it is the offspring of crabs, not birds. Let’s examine and correctly identify the nation that claims the most that it loves capitalism-the United States. 

Socialism being somehow un-American or some sort of foreign import is intended to confuse the masses and those who like to believe that the US is practicing capitalism. America now enjoys the full support of both major parties on the following: Social Security, public housing, public power developments, legal protection for collective bargaining and other attributes of the welfare state. Look a little deeper and you would pay homage to the old Ga proverb that says: Kaa Fɔɔɔ Loflɔ. 

Keywords: [“nation”,”capitalist”,”socialist”]
Source: http://grandmotherafrica.com/capitalism-vs-socialism-a-crab-cannot-birth…

J.R.’s Zaphne Blog News for 07-23-2018

Inequality, Race, and Remedy

The value of equality, democratic voice, physical and economic security, social mobility, a shared sense of responsibility for one another, and a chance to start over after misfortune or missteps – what many Americans call redemption – are the moral pillars of the American ideal of opportunity. Many Americans of goodwill who want to reduce poverty believe that race is no longer relevant to understanding the problem, or to fashioning solutions for it. In 2000, after a decade of remarkable economic prosperity, the poverty rate among African Americans and Latinos taken together was still 2.6 times greater than that for white Americans. From 2004 to 2005, while the overall number of poor Americans declined by almost 1 million, to 37 million, poverty rates for most communities of color actually increased. An analysis by The Opportunity Agenda and the Poverty & Race Research Action Council found that while the percentage of Americans of all races living in high-poverty neighborhoods declined between 1960 and 2000, the racial gap grew considerably. 

Similar research in California found that Asian American and, especially, Arab American résumés received the least-favorable treatment compared to other groups. In addition to identifying barriers facing African Americans and Latinos, this research found significant levels of discrimination against Asian Americans, and that Native American renters may face the highest discrimination rates of all. In the case of Native Americans, a quarter of whom are poor, our government continues to play a more flagrant role in thwarting pathways out of poverty. High levels of Native American poverty derive not only from a history of wars, forced relocations, and broken treaties by the United States but also from ongoing breaches of trust – like our government’s failure to account for tens of billions of dollars that it was obligated to hold in trust for Native American individuals and families. While the Asian American poverty rate mirrored that of the country as a whole, Southeast Asian communities reflected far higher levels. 

Americans’ complex attitudes and emotions about race are crucial to understanding the public discourse about poverty and the public’s will to address it. In a more detailed analysis of TV newsmagazines in particular, Gilens found a generally unflattering framing of the poor, but the presentation of poor African Americans was more negative still. 

Keywords: [“American”,”poverty”,”poor”]
Source: http://prospect.org/article/inequality-race-and-remedy

The Trouble With Wilderness; or, Getting Back to the Wrong Nature

Wilderness fulfills the old romantic project of secularizing Judeo-Christian values so as to make a new cathedral not in some petty human building but in God’s own creation, Nature itself. The trouble with wilderness is that it quietly expresses and reproduces the very values its devotees seek to reject. Only people whose relation to the land was already alienated could hold up wilderness as a model for human life in nature, for the romantic ideology of wilderness leaves precisely nowhere for human beings actually to make their living from the land. To the extent that we celebrate wilderness as the measure with which we judge civilization, we reproduce the dualism that sets humanity and nature at opposite poles. To do so is merely to take to a logical extreme the paradox that was built into wilderness from the beginning: if nature dies because we enter it, then the only way to save nature is to kill ourselves. 

The tautology gives us no way out: if wild nature is the only thing worth saving, and if our mere presence destroys it, then the sole solution to our own unnaturalness, the only way to protect sacred wilderness from profane humanity, would seem to be suicide. From such a starting place, it is hard not to reach the conclusion that the only way human beings can hope to live naturally on earth is to follow the hunter-gatherers back into a wilderness Eden and abandon virtually everything that civilization has given us. Without our quite realizing it, wilderness tends to privilege some parts of nature at the expense of others. Any way of looking at nature that encourages us to believe we are separate from nature-as wilderness tends to do-is likely to reinforce environmentally irresponsible behavior. To the extent that wilderness has served as an important vehicle for articulating deep moral values regarding our obligations and responsibilities to the nonhuman world, I would not want to jettison the contributions it has made to our culture’s ways of thinking about nature. 

The romantic legacy means that wilderness is more a state of mind than a fact of nature, and the state of mind that today most defines wilderness is wonder. If wilderness can do this-if it can help us perceive and respect a nature we had forgotten to recognize as natural-then it will become part of the solution to our environmental dilemmas rather than part of the problem. 

Keywords: [“wilderness”,”nature”,”place”]
Source: http://www.williamcronon.net/writing/Trouble_with_Wilderness_Main.html

The End of Charity: How Christians are to ‘Remember the Poor’

Longenecker’s careful analysis of the ambiguities surrounding Paul’s commitment to the care of the poor is not meant to challenge the general presumption that Paul and the early church in general did not assume that Christians had an obligation to care for the poor. One of the reasons I am intent to address questions surrounding what it means to remember the poor – or, in other terms, why charity is at the heart of Christian living – is I do not think I have adequately dealt with the challenge that Christians must be a community of the poor that cares for the poor. The poor are poor for numerous reasons, but the bottom line is the poor got left out of the development of advanced economies and there is little one can do to rectify that reality. One of the most interesting questions raised by Lupton – a question, as I noted, also explored by Longenecker – is how the poor are identified as well as what makes them poor. To be with the poor means one must first learn to listen to the poor and, by listening, to discover that the poor are not without resources for survival. 

Rather than focusing of individual acts of charity, now Christians tried to imagine social policies that would make the poor no longer poor. There is nothing wrong with thinking it important to be on the right political side, but lost in that way of trying to fulfil our obligation to the poor is how we find in the face of the poor the face of Christ. To listen to the poor is an exercise of great discipline, but such listening surely is what is required if charity is not to become a hatred of the poor for being poor. Of course, listening, being with and working with the poor are not mutually exclusive activities, but I fear we often want to help the poor without getting to know who the poor may be. I suspect we do so, not from some ideology against the poor, but rather I suspect we prefer to do for the poor rather than be with the poor because the poor scare the hell out of us. 

As an alternative, I think as Christians we need to know how to be with the poor in a manner that the gifts that the poor receive do not make impossible friendship between the giver and the recipient. Charity so understood surely has some chance of being with the poor in a manner that avoids the dishonesty and dependency associated with charity aimed at doing something for the poor. 

Keywords: [“poor”,”charity”,”Christian”]
Source: http://www.abc.net.au/religion/articles/2014/02/10/3941760.htm

J.R.’s Zaphne Blog News for 03-17-2018

Charity, Compassionate Capitalism and the Alms Race

The 7th of March marks the end of fair trade fortnight; and what a noble campaign it is too, not simply serving to allow indifferent middle class westerners to drop a couple of coins in a pot, but actually a way of addressing some of the pitfalls of our trade system in a way that promotes fair remuneration for hard work in the world’s most impoverished countries. The sort of indifferent charity that the fair trade campaign seeks to undercut is very much an ongoing, prevalent part of our society that despite all of its pretences must be challenged in a very particular way. We can see Žižek’s logic here; of course these billionaires can give up their cash for world hunger, it’s no skin off their backs. ižek’s particular critique is much more than that. Whether certain figureheads for capitalism have a conscience or not is quite beside the point, what is important here, for Žižek, is that capitalism still has its underlying logic, and that is the ruthless pursuit of profit. The charity element is a way to conceal the truth, a way to appease guilt, or at least to be perceived as appeasing guilt. Though cynically we can take a sound guess that charity is often used as a way of deflecting guilt, it also maintains the existing systematic gap between rich nations and poor nations. Though fair trade operates at roughly the same logic it is a way of taking farmers out of their poverty that relies on the mobilisation of interest groups and people, not the guilt-ridden exploration by fat cats, engaged in what we can safely say is now an alms race. Charity may well be the means by which the rich West pretends to do something in order to sleep at night, but that doesn’t mean it should stop because as a consequence some change is made. Simply giving money isn’t enough, so until the systemic inequality between nations has ended, people-motivated initiatives like fair trade are the only means we have, just let us not get too surprised when odious corporations like Nestle jump on the bandwagon.

Keywords: [“way”,”charity”,”trade”]
Source: https://raincoatoptimism.wordpress.com/2010/03/06/charity…

VIDEO: A Conversation on Capitalism, the Climate and Justice

There was a packed house at the historic Riverside Church last night where Michelle Alexander and Naomi Klein participated in a conversation about the incompatibility between Capitalism, the Climate and Justice. I attended this event, hosted by Union Theological Seminary at the historic Riverside Church in downtown Manhattan. The Spirit of Justice is a conversation about what it will take to birth a new America, a nation in which every life and every voice truly matters. The last presidential election was a painful reminder that it is dangerous to view American history as a slow but steady march towards greater freedom, justice, and equality for all. One thing is clear: Since the days of our nation’s founding, there have always been people who have courageously embraced and embodied a spirit of justice. People of all colors, backgrounds, and walks of life have, in various ways, shown up in American history as revolutionaries, challenging us to reimagine what dignity, justice, and equality ought to mean and forcing us to reconsider who should be considered worthy of our collective care, compassion, and concern. While some may wish to return to a time when most Americans had few rights and little hope for justice, The Spirit of Justice aims to amplify the voices of modern-day revolutionaries – artists, activists, scholars, healers, teachers and more – who are committed to moving forward in new ways with a keen understanding of the political history and moral dilemmas which brought us to this moment in time. For her part, Naomi Klein spoke about growing up to not be a part of the war machine. Klein also spoke of her father being raised in a very leftist/socialist family of and how her grandfather was a key union organizer in the famous Disney animators’ strike of 1941. Overall, I was hoping for a conversation that was more hard hitting and that would relay a wake up call to the audience reflecting the true state of emergency we really are in.

Keywords: [“Justice”,”people”,”Klein”]
Source: https://democracychronicles.org/conversation-on-capitalism

Human Nature, Anarchy, and Capitalism

What is government but the greatest of all reflections on human nature. If angels were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls on the government would be necessary. In framing a government which is to be administered by men over men, the great difficulty lies in this: you must first enable the government to control the governed; and in the next place oblige it to control itself. Minimalist government guarantees that only those who lack ethical standards will thrive, because they will do anything to get ahead. Of course, the opposite extreme of maximalist government – as practiced most prominently by tin-horn third-world megalomaniacs – also causes everything to go to hell. Those in government are subject to the same imperfections of human nature,the same greed, as everyone else. The spirit of encroachment tends to consolidate the powers of all the departments in one, and thus to create whatever the form of government, a real despotism. The fear of these men was not first of all the damage that free men could do in private life, but the great damage, the tyranny, that could be done when fallible men are given too much power through the reins of government. If Classical Liberal principles are indeed about abolishing rather than preserving the disabilities of the state of nature, with a sharp eye to the dangers of trusting too much power into the fallible, interested, greedy human hands of those in government, then the objections of John, and perhaps of Gray and Nozick, are answered. The defense of capitalism even without appeal to purely economic truths, can proceed in the same manner as the defense of limited government before the forms of economic life even became an issue. Distrust of human nature but trust in government betrays an incoherence whose bitter fruit is necessarily corruption and tyranny, however lofty and deceptive the rhetoric by which power always masks and rationalizes itself.

Keywords: [“government”,”Nature”,”state”]
Source: http://www.friesian.com/fallen.htm

J.R.’s Zaphne Blog News for 02-18-2018

Compassionate Capitalism-Part 2

Is Human Nature Competitive or Cooperative? |

Another Victorian scientist, Herbert Spencer, coined the term “Survival of the fittest”, applying it to human society, claiming that competition is our fundamental nature. In 1966, Austrian ethnologist Konrad Lorenz published a bestseller called On Aggression in which he argued that human beings are innately aggressive, competitive, possessive and violent. A decade later evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins published The Selfish Gene, about the human instinct for self-preservation; it sold over a million copies, and was translated into more than 25 languages. People who argue that “You can’t change human nature” make the mistake of assuming that because people are led to behave in a certain way in a capitalist society, that behavior reflects the essential nature of human beings. Therefore such people conclude that this behavior is natural for all human beings and that it is impossible to establish a society based on anything except a competitive struggle for private profit. Robert Augros and George Stanciu, in their book The New Biology: Discovering the Wisdom of Nature, found that in fact cooperation, not competition, is the norm in nature, because it is energy-efficient and because predators and their prey maintain a kind of balanced coexistence. Today most anthropologists and psychologists assert that the question of nature or nurture is not an either/or issue, but one of interrelation-ship. We are born with certain instincts and tendencies, but through education, upbringing and our own conscious choices, we can transform our conduct, nature and personality. Firefighters, soldiers, human rights advocates and accidental heroes may endanger themselves or even sacrifice their lives in order to save others. As part of the science of yoga, relevant to the idea of improving human behavior, Sarkar used the term “Bio-psychology” to describe how the glands, nerves and brain of the body affect our behaviors, thoughts and feelings.

Keywords: [“cooperation”,”human”,”nature”]
Source: http://proutglobe.org/2012/10/is-human-nature-competitive-or-cooperative

What We Owe Capitalism, In One Graph

As you can see, that number has dropped rather dramatically, starting as Communism began to fall and more of the world was able to benefit from economic freedom. It shows the relative number between those living in extreme poverty and those who do not, taking account of the massive increase in world population since 1820. The world has grown from about 1 billion people in 1820 to 7.5 billion today. It’s a tiny fraction today of what it was then, indeed a relatively small fraction of today’s population, and it’s dropping fast. Thomas Edison didn’t invent the lightbulb for free, nor did he – or J.P. Morgan, or George Westinghouse – throw vast personal resources at electrifying the world’s businesses and homes randomly. They were creating ex nihilo, literally bringing light to darkness, and opening up vast worlds of possibility in the process. If the left’s theories were true, not only would this graph show a completely different economic story, but almost all of the people represented on this graph would be dead, or never would have been born in the first place. All of pre-Capitalist human history, for thousands and thousands of years, were as horribly impoverished, with the tiniest possible group of “Haves” above the largest possible group of “Have-nots”, as the world was in 1820: indeed, most of it was quite a lot worse. What changed? The miraculous incentive-based system we call Capitalism, or economic freedom, which makes even the most selfish strive with all their abilities to improve the world around them. Third, the rise of global population, which we were promised meant that all of the world’s resources must necessarily be spread thinner over vastly increasing numbers with each passing year, thus inevitably bringing not merely famine but a consequent vast reduction in population, not to mention a standard of living for the survivors far beneath that of the Dark Ages.

Keywords: [“world”,”population”,”today”]
Source: http://rodmartin.org/owe-capitalism-one-graph

O’ the Compassions of Capitalism |Other Blog

While at work yesterday, I noticed a new line of products that BR is releasing referred to as their Green line. This line of products is currently being sent out to various stores in a trial run to see how it sells in different areas, ultimately to find the most successful locations and strategically place them there. Now, the characteristics that distinguish this line is that they, both the item and price tag, are made with “Sustainable fibers” that are “Eco-friendly.” To be honest, I wasn’t that surprised when I first saw this in our store given the growing national concern for issues of social injustice that is increasingly being worked into the marketing world. This is a product line that was created by Bono and Bobby Schriver, chairman of DATA, that contributes a certain percentage of the revenue to help eliminate AIDS in Africa. Various companies can sign on and distribute their own Red Products. Back to the previous discussion of the BR “Green” line. Organic and Sustainable New Products: Banana Republic values the opinions and ideals of our customers. That’s why we responded when we learned customers wanted eco-friendlier products. Notice the reasoning – Because BR values the “Opinions” and “Ideals” of their customers, they responded by giving them what they wanted in the creation of “Eco-friendlier products.” I find it incredibly ironic that commodities such as this “Green” line are able to be promoted and praised for their compassionate concern when in reality these “Concerns” are set in terms of an inherently dehumanizing, capitalist system that can only function “Successfully” if commodities are peddled to consumers, and all others in the market are reduced to competitors. Now, I am sure that many of the people involved in this “Green” line, and many other product lines like it, are very well intentioned.

Keywords: [“product”,”line”,”Eco-friendly”]
Source: https://ericroorback.wordpress.com/…/o-the-compassions-of-capitalism

JR Test Site News for 01-25-2018

‘Philanthropist’ Rockefeller and the hoax of ‘enlightened capitalism’, by Ramin Mazaheri

We all know, whether you admit it or not, that Chavismo was more effective, more efficient and thoroughly debunked the billionaire’s model of “Enlightened capitalism”. What’s more important is to remember that so-called “Enlightened capitalism” is still a trap being set for you, me and the average person. The “Conscious capitalism” movement is a rare case where American exceptionalism which is actually true. What is the only role of corporations in “Conscious capitalism”? It is to listenand perhaps change their deadly, abusive habits. The role of the consumer in this “Conscious capitalism” philosophy is appalling not in its brutality, but in its infinite endlessness. The philosophy posits that, instead of shifting from capitalism to communism, we all just need to be “Ethical consumers”. Being a “Conscious consumer” is great for capitalism because it makes the average person even more committed to upholding the capitalist model. The entire concept of “Conscious capitalism” when applied to private companies is essentially reduced to the idea – so prevalent in fascism and so absent from so many forms of non-Stalinist communism – that only the “Great” should be leading society. ‘Conscious capitalism’ has long been triedit failed. Prod the idea of “Enlightened capitalism” and you get not just the status quo, but no future as well. There is no “Enlightened capitalism” on a corporate scale. You would do much better – for absolutely everybody living today and in the future – to embrace modernity and demand the fundamental shift from capitalism to communism.

Keywords: [“capitalism”,”corporation”,”more”]
Source: https://www.unz.com/article/conscious-capitalism


The origins of capitalism: 13th – 16th century The underlying theme of capitalism is the use of wealth to create more wealth. At a more sophisticated level capitalism involves investing money in a project in return for a share of the profit. Full-scale capitalism results in an inevitable divide between employer and employed, or capital and labour. In the Middle Ages the attitude of the church to usury means that capitalism has little chance of developing. Florence in the 14th century demonstrates more familiar indications of capitalism. Such cases contain elements of later capitalism, but their limited scale makes them in a certain way different. The essential characteristics of capitalism only become evident with an increase in scale – in two quite separate contexts. Of later ventures launched on a similar basis, the best known are the East India Company, the Hudson’s Bay Company and the South Sea Company. Calvinism and capitalism: 17th century The development of capitalism in northern Protestant countries, such as the Netherlands and England, has prompted the theory that the Reformation is a cause of capitalism. Nevertheless there are elements in Reformation thought which greatly help the development of capitalism. Speculation: from the 17th century Speculation is an intrinsic part of capitalism, since the capitalist must risk money in the hope of making more. The enterprises in which they participate are joint-stock companies, of which the East India Company is one of the first.

Keywords: [“company”,”capitalism”,”share”]
Source: http://www.historyworld.net/wrldhis/PlainTextHistories.asp?historyid=aa49

Lecture 16: The Romantic Era

Everyone claims to know the meaning of the word romantic. The expression Romantic gained currency during its own time, roughly 1780-1850. To speak of a Romantic era is to identify a period in which certain ideas and attitudes arose, gained currency and in most areas of intellectual endeavor, became dominant. Romantic ideas arose both as implicit and explicit criticisms of 18th century Enlightenment thought. In a comment typical of the Romantic thrust, William Hazlitt asked, “For the better part of my life all I did was think.” And William Godwin, a contemporary of Hazlitt’s asked, “What shall I do when I have read all the books?” Christianity had formed a matrix into which medieval man situated himself. For the Romantic, the result was nothing less than the demotion of the individual. The Romantic era can be considered as indicative of an age of crisis. In the midst of what has been called the Romantic Era, an era often portrayed as devoted to irrationality and “Unreason,” the most purely rational social science – classical political economy – carried on the Enlightenment tradition. The shift to a new enemy reminds us that the Romantic Age was also an eclectic age. These limits often exerted pressures that can be identified as causes of the Romantic movement itself. In the Romantic era, men and women felt these temporal and experiential differences consciously and intensely. One power possessed by the Romantic, a power distinct and superior to reason, was imagination.

Keywords: [“Romantic”,”Enlightenment”,”nature”]
Source: http://historyguide.org/intellect/lecture16a.html

Enlightened Negotiation®

It is Dr. Nazari’s passion to show others how to engage and energize all stakeholders in their interactions in order to achieve their higher purpose. He has spent decades helping thousands of people around the world elevate their personal and professional interactions by enhancing their negotiation skills. Dr. Nazari was awarded a PhD in Leadership and Human Behavior, and is the author of the multiple-award winning book Enlightened Negotiation: 8 Universal Laws to Connect, Create and Prosper. He spent a decade as a professor of International business negotiation at US International University in San Diego, California, is the founder and CEO for three decades of California Real Estate Services, and the co-founder of Raja Yoga Institute. Dr. Nazari is a frequent monastic guest of India’s noted Himalayan Tradition ashram, Sadhaka Grama, and the Rinzai Zen monastery, Mt. Baldy Zen Center, in California. He has studied with some of the most revered spiritual masters of our time, including the American Walt Baptiste, Swami Veda Bharati of India, and Kyozen Joshu Roshi of Japan. He currently serves on the Advisory Board for Mission America, helping veterans in transition to the civilian life. Dr. Nazari is also on the Board for Conscious Capitalism San Diego, whose mission is to activate the potential of conscious businesses through education, mentorship, business community engagement and modeling conscious business practices.

Keywords: [“Dr.”,”Nazari”,”negotiation”]
Source: http://www.enlightenednegotiation.com/dr-nazari

JR Test Site News for 01-24-2018

Tradinistas Want to Replace Capitalism With “Catholic” Socialism!

In case you haven’t heard, there is apparently a new small sub-group of Catholics who have decided that it’s time to end the American Experiment. In their own words, the Tradinistas are “a small party of young Christian socialists committed to traditional orthodoxy, to a politics of virtue and the common good, and to the destruction of capitalism, and its replacement by a truly social political economy.” “a small party of young Christian socialists committed to traditional orthodoxy, to a politics of virtue and the common good, and to the destruction of capitalism, and its replacement by a truly social political economy.” The young lady also opined that “The problem is not the state. The problem is exploitation. The state exists because of exploitation, and in support of exploitation. The state cannot and will not be ended until exploitation is ended, yet those who claim a desire to end the state refuse to admit that exploitation is even real.” Karl Marx would be proud. It’s hard to tell if this young lady is Catholic or Protestant but it’s telling that she would favor a candidate who is a pro-abortion socialist. Since the Enlightenment many of the young people of every new generation have wanted to cure the injustices they see in the world. As Winston Churchill once said, “A man of twenty who isn’t a socialist has no heart. A man of forty who is still a socialist has no head.” But the fact that young Catholic adults would think that socialism can be reconciled with Catholic Dogma and Social Teaching bespeaks of the secular-progressive education they are getting. Some young adults are becoming fans of distributism as a cure for what they see as the evils of capitalism. If man were virtuous in his behavior in the market, capitalism, or more precisely the free market, would function just fine. What if the Catholic Church was the only Christian Church in existence today? Would the Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolution still have taken place? What about the French Revolution, the American Revolution, or even WWI or WWII? What if guys like John Locke, Thomas Hobbes, Thomas Paine, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau had all been devout Catholics? And what if Adam Smith’s invisible hand had instead been virtuous behavior? He is a cradle Catholic who attended a Catholic grade school, high school and university. In addition to writing for Catholic Stand he has also had articles and essays published at www.

Keywords: [“Catholic”,”young”,”today”]
Source: http://www.catholicstand.com/tradinistas

Max Horkheimer’s Critique of Instrumental Reason and the Domination of Nature

Instrumental reason, or subjective reason, can be described as a tool for human self-preservation; self orientated thought; an instrument concerned with instrumentalising the world to the advantage of the subject. Instrumental reason has two opposing elements: the abstract ego emptied of all substance except its attempt to transform everything in heaven and on earth into means for its preservation, and on the other hand an empty nature degraded to mere material, mere stuff to be dominated, without any other purpose than that of this very domination. The ego, used here in the Freudian sense, is a product of instrumental reason, shaped by a mastery over nature, and “Is the subject that irresistibly charges ahead in the process of enlightenment”. The Enlightenment brought with it wide acceptance and application of instrumental reason, and it is through the narrowed lens of science and the domination of nature, self and other, that enlightenment undermines itself. Instrumental reason’s domination of nature works in both respects. Zuidervaart talks about domination in three ways; “The domination of nature by human beings [outer], the domination of nature within human beings [inner], and, in both of these forms of domination, the domination of some human beings by others.” Domination of outer nature has adverse effects, according to Horkheimer, in that that which cannot be manipulated through science to human ends is omitted from the bounds of instrumental reason, resulting in a distorted view of what is real. Instrumental reason contradicts itself in that the mastery of nature for human preservation inevitably leads to the destruction of nature, which in turn spells destruction for humanity. Instrumental reason, due to its subjective nature and relentless push for self-preservation, instead of emancipating, leads to the domination of outer nature, which in turn leads to domination over inner nature. In The Theory of Communicative Action, Jürgen Habermas points to some very damning contradictions that arise from Horkheimer’s critique of instrumental reason. Max Horkheimer’s critique of instrumental reason provides us with a set of theoretical tools and a starting point for a meaningful investigation into a dialectic of the Enlightenment as well as a critical assessment of current social structures. By shifting the focus from instrumental reason toward what Habermas calls communicative reason, he presents a possible escape from Horkheimer’s aporia.

Keywords: [“reason”,”nature”,”instrumental”]
Source: https://ldmac5.wordpress.com/2011/10/17/max-horkheimer’s-critique…

The Basics of Philosophy

Capitalism is the the economic and social system in which the means of production are predominantly privately owned and operated for profit, and distribution and exchange is in a mainly market economy. Some form of Capitalism has been dominant in the Western world since the end of feudalism in the Middle Ages, and has provided the main, although not exclusive, means of industrialization throughout much of the world. Smith devised a set of concepts that remain strongly associated with Capitalism today, particularly his theory of the “Invisible hand” of the market, through which the pursuit of individual self-interest unintentionally produces a collective good for society. In the wake of industrialization, the repeal of restrictive laws, and the teachings of Smith and Ricardo, laissez-faire Capitalism gained favour over mercantilism in Britain in the mid-19th Century, and it embraced Liberalism, competition and the development of a market economy, from where it rapidly spread throughout much of the western world. During the late 19th and early 20th Century, Capitalism set itself in opposition to the rising tide of Socialist, Marxist and Communist thought, and to the whole concept of centrally-planned economies. After the long post-war boom, during which the Keynesian “State capitalism” was in the ascendant, a new push towards laissez-faire Capitalism and classical Liberalism was led by the economists Friedrich Hayek and Milton Friedman, and championed by conservative leaders like Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher in the 1970’s. Market instability:Marxists claim that market instability is a permanent feature of capitalist economy, and that the unplanned and explosive growth of Capitalism does not occur in a smooth manner, but is interrupted by periods of overproduction in which stagnation or decline occur. Marxists, particularly Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, argue that Capitalism needs imperialism in order to survive, as it expands its over-saturated local markets into other less-developed nations. Economic freedom:There has been criticism of the usual measures of economic freedom which are often used to justify Capitalism. The globalization of production, which is an integral part of the functioning of modern Capitalism, also produces significant pollution and waste of resources. Religious criticism:Some religions criticize or outright reject capitalism. Some Christians have also strongly criticized Capitalism, particularly its materialistic aspects.

Keywords: [“Capitalism”,”capitalist”,”market”]
Source: http://www.philosophybasics.com/branch_capitalism.html

JR Test Site News for 01-21-2018

The Unbearable Cheapness of Capitalism

“We’ll take everything you’ve got,” they answer, “Just make it cheap!”. Their new book, A History of the World in Seven Cheap Things, illuminates many aspects of our present moment. In short, he could see Cheap Things which could be taken, used, and sold for a profit. Patel and Moore’s framework is most convincing in their chapters on Cheap Nature, Cheap Work, and Cheap Care. As the book goes on, the notion of “Cheap” grows ever fuzzier. First of all, what’s cheap to one party in a transaction might be very dear to the other. While a capitalist gains cheap labour, others lose their cultures, their dignity, often their very lives. In their chapter on Cheap Money, Patel and Moore note that the European powers sunk tremendous resources into the military budgets needed to extend colonial domination around the world. The chapter “Cheap Lives” notes that “Keeping things cheap is expensive. The forces of law and order, domestic and international, are a costly part of the management of capitalism’s ecology.” The vaunted Free Market, in other words, has never come free. “We come to what we mean by cheapness: it’s a set of strategies to manage relations between capitalism and the web of life by temporarily fixing capitalism’s crises. Cheap is not the same as low cost – though that’s part of it. Cheap is a strategy, a practice, a violence that mobilizes all kinds of work – human and animal, botanical and geological – with as little compensation as possible. Cheapening marks the transition from uncounted relations of life making to the lowest possible dollar value. It’s always a short-term strategy.” Capitalism means the Strategies of getting things Cheap. Cheap means those Strategies used by Capitalism. Life-destroying stress for employees, but Cheap Work for Bezos. “There’s something very different about the era of financialization that began in the 1980s. Previous financial expansions could all count on imperialism to extend profit-making opportunities into significant new frontiers of cheap nature. Today, those frontiers are smaller than ever before, and the volume of capital looking for new investment is greater than ever before.” The Conclusion offers suggestions of “a way to think beyond a world of cheap things.” But in spite of the potentially intriguing headings Recognition, Reparation, Redistribution, Reimagination, and Recreation, their suggestions are so sketchy that they end a solid story on a very thin note.

Keywords: [“cheap”,”Nature”,”new”]
Source: http://www.resilience.org/stories/2018-01-10/unbearable-cheapness-capitalism

The unbearable cheapness of capitalism – An Outside Chance

“We’ll take everything you’ve got,” they answer, “Just make it cheap!”. Their new book, A History of the World in Seven Cheap Things, illuminates many aspects of our present moment. In short, he could see Cheap Things which could be taken, used, and sold for a profit. Patel and Moore’s framework is most convincing in their chapters on Cheap Nature, Cheap Work, and Cheap Care. As the book goes on, the notion of “Cheap” grows ever fuzzier. First of all, what’s cheap to one party in a transaction might be very dear to the other. While a capitalist gains cheap labour, others lose their cultures, their dignity, often their very lives. In their chapter on Cheap Money, Patel and Moore note that the European powers sunk tremendous resources into the military budgets needed to extend colonial domination around the world. The chapter “Cheap Lives” notes that “Keeping things cheap is expensive. The forces of law and order, domestic and international, are a costly part of the management of capitalism’s ecology.” The vaunted Free Market, in other words, has never come free. “We come to what we mean by cheapness: it’s a set of strategies to manage relations between capitalism and the web of life by temporarily fixing capitalism’s crises. Cheap is not the same as low cost – though that’s part of it. Cheap is a strategy, a practice, a violence that mobilizes all kinds of work – human and animal, botanical and geological – with as little compensation as possible. Cheapening marks the transition from uncounted relations of life making to the lowest possible dollar value. It’s always a short-term strategy.” Capitalism means the Strategies of getting things Cheap. Cheap means those Strategies used by Capitalism. Life-destroying stress for employees, but Cheap Work for Bezos. “There’s something very different about the era of financialization that began in the 1980s. Previous financial expansions could all count on imperialism to extend profit-making opportunities into significant new frontiers of cheap nature. Today, those frontiers are smaller than ever before, and the volume of capital looking for new investment is greater than ever before.” The Conclusion offers suggestions of “a way to think beyond a world of cheap things.” But in spite of the potentially intriguing headings Recognition, Reparation, Redistribution, Reimagination, and Recreation, their suggestions are so sketchy that they end a solid story on a very thin note.

Keywords: [“cheap”,”Nature”,”new”]
Source: https://anoutsidechance.com/…/the-unbearable-cheapness-of-capitalism

Now That Whole Foods Belongs To Amazon, What Happens To Conscious Capi

Since Whole Foods CEO John Mackey agreed to sell his company to Amazon last week, he’s been telling friends he’s excited by the “Cultural fit,” and that he’s optimistic about his “Personal relationship” with Jeff Bezos. He told employees the “Partnership presents an incredible opportunity to take Whole Foods Market’s mission and purpose to new levels.” Raj Sisodia, who wrote the book Conscious Capitalism with Mackey and has spoken to him recently, says being taken over by Amazon is the best way out. “It enables Whole Foods to continue to be a ‘conscious’ company, and it takes away some of the short-term pressures on them,” he says in an interview. While this positive vision of what companies can be has been increasingly accepted, it wasn’t enough for Whole Foods. “With any other acquisition-with a Kroger or the [other] supermarkets-it would have meant squeezing margins, laying off a bunch of people, cutting back on the foundations that Whole Foods supports as part of a movement.” Can Conscious Capitalism Survive?Selling to Amazon raises questions about the future of the “Conscious capitalism” agenda that Mackey established at Whole Foods and hoped, as Sisodia says, to grow into a “Movement.” Will Amazon safeguard Mackey’s and Whole Foods’ more enlightened attitudes and programs? Does Amazon’s acquisition represent a mainstreaming of Whole Foods’s philosophy, or perhaps a diminution of it, proving that Whole Foods couldn’t get any bigger on its own? “The poster child company was Whole Foods,” he says. Whole Foods’ performance on Wall Street was sluggish, prices remained too high, and Mackey was too preachy about his food choices: he didn’t give people what they wanted when they wanted it. George says Bezos will focus on getting Whole Foods more competitive on price. Alexander McCobin, co-CEO of the Conscious Capitalism, Inc, not surprisingly doesn’t see any “Indictment of conscious capitalism” in Whole Foods falling to Amazon. “The reason Amazon wants Whole Foods is for its conscious capitalism. That’s been the success that Whole Foods has had over the long term,” he says. In selling Whole Foods to Amazon, Mackey gives up on shareholder capitalism or leaves it to someone else to handle. For all his genius in building a 460+ store network and generating more than $8 billion a year, Mackey ultimately failed to square the needs of shareholder capitalism with the needs of conscious capitalism. The future of Whole Foods, now in the hands of a quite different company, is uncertain.

Keywords: [“Whole”,”food”,”Mackey”]
Source: https://www.fastcompany.com/40432785/now-that-whole-foods-belongs…

JR Test Site News for 01-21-2018

Environmental History: Between Science and Philosophy

1 Donald Worster, one of the leading environmental historians in North America, used Snow’s ideas to show how environmental history in particular needs the talents of historians and scientists working together. 3 To understand these reciprocal impacts we must try to bridge the gap between culture and nature, between science and history. Environmental history is an attempt to unite the two worlds of science and history. Environmental history ventures into all human activities ranging from economics to social organisation, politics, science, philosophy, and religion. The rise of this new type of history coincided with the rise of the modern environmental movement and the emergence of public concern over environmental issues as a major public concern in the 1960s. We can distinguish several branches in environmental history including green history, the ideas of environment and nature throughout history, pollution and degradation history, to mention only a few. The link between the development of ecology and the colonial context provided the background for a distinct type of environmental history: the impact of imperialism and colonialism on the natural world. 33 Colonial history added the global perspective to environmental history and explores the destructive powers unleashed on a global scale by European colonialism and exploitation as well as interaction with local environmental management regimes. It is deeply attached to economic history, social history and cultural history; it is closely attached to conservation biology science, environmental science and the earth sciences but also archaeology, which studies the material past and many other subjects. The bottom line is that Environmental history is more of an applied science or an applied humanities subject, depending from which angle you approach it. A considerable part of environmental history is dealing with our perceptions of nature and the environment, which is an intellectual history of the relationship between humans and nature. Environmental history could be the crossroad between the humanities and the natural sciences. Environmental history is probably close to what the French Annales-school called “Total history” and they argued that history is everything, and everything is history. 2 Worster, D., “The Two Cultures: Environmental History and the Environmental Sciences”, Environment and History, 2 3-14; Worster, Donald, The wealth of nature: environmental history and the ecological imagination. This is reflected in the creation of the European Society for Environmental History, the South Asian Society for Environmental History and the Latin American Society for Environmental history.

Keywords: [“history”,”nature”,”environmental”]
Source: https://www.eh-resources.org/environmental-history-between-science…

One push of a button and clickety-click out comes a new man. The Neoplatonic philosopher, Plotinus, communicated the very essence of Cosmic Toryism when he wrote: Thus, every man has his place, a place that fits the good man , a place that fits the bad. As the actors of our stages get their masks and their costume, robes of state or rags, so a soul is allotted its fortunes, and not at haphazard but always under a ReasonAll is just and good in the universe in which every actor is set in his own quite appropriate place. The pagan, platonic tradition has always maintained that karma ‘maketh the man’. “Know your station and keep to your station.” The sixty to seventy years preceding the French Revolution are generally known as the period of the Enlightenment. Enlightenment thinkers believed passionately in the perfectibility of the human-being. We could say that the Enlightenment embraced Pico’s contention that man is a miracle with considerable glee and gusto! As a miracle, man can furnish his own salvation. Here is how another Enlightenment thinker, Sebastian Mercier, expressed the same idea: Where can the perfectibility of man stop, armed with geometry and the mechanical arts and chemistry? 5 The movement of future progress described by Condorcet can be compared to the advance of the whole of humanity on an open plain. For Condorcet, critical reason, is the means by which man finds salvation! At the beginning of the battle humans are unenlightened, filled with every conceivable superstition. Every man will seek, with ineffable ardour, the good of all. In contrast Enlightenment thinkers were spellbound by their own astonishing potential. His pupils engraved this pithy summary of all Enlightenment thought on his tombstone: “The golden age does not lie behind us, but ahead of us.” 8 How have these ideas of perfectibility, innate goodness and future utopia influenced the way ordinary people conduct their lives? Imagine we have a time machine and we go back to Paris in the year 1794. A society firmly based in critical reason and the perfectibility of man. The Dutch economist Bob Goudzwaard has explained the intimate link between Enlightenment thought and the ideology of revolution in his book Capitalism and Progress. How does an ideology of revolution come into being? Such an ideology starts from the general assumption That man by nature is not evil but good, and that consequently The evil that does exist in the world should not be attributed To man himself but to the social order and its structures which Force him to do wrong. The Enlightenment spawned the pervasive belief that humans can perfect themselves without God.

Keywords: [“man”,”Enlightenment”,”nature”]
Source: http://www.freewebs.com/reformationalphilosophy/Roques/MSREnlightenment.pdf

JR Test Site News for 01-18-2018


Given the tension between the abstract universalism of natural law and the actual cultural practices of indigenous peoples, it was easy to interpret native difference as evidence of the violation of natural law. In his contributions to Raynal’s Histoire des deux Indes, he challenges the view that indigenous people benefit from European civilization and argues that the European colonists are the uncivilized ones. Alexis de Tocqueville, for example, made a case for colonialism that did not rely on the idea of a “Civilizing mission.” Tocqueville recognized that colonialism probably did not bring good government to the native peoples, but this did not lead him to oppose colonialism since his support rested entirely on the way it benefited France. Unlike previous studies that focused on the economic or political logics of colonialism, Said drew attention to the relationship between knowledge and power. One point of controversy in contemporary Indigenous political theory literature is the extent to which it is desirable to participate in colonial legal and political institutions in order to transform them. In Mohawk Interruptus: A Political Life Across the Borders of Settler States, Audra Simpson argues that the contemporary democratic practices of recognition transform indigenous peoples from sovereign nations into ethnic minority citizens. In Wasáse: Indigenous Pathways to Action and Freedom Taiaiake Alfred argues that meaningful change to the colonial condition requires a lasting transformation of society through Indigenous resurgence. According to Alfred, Indigenous reintegration cannot take place within the Western liberal framework because the imperatives of capitalism contrast sharply with those of the Indigenous ways of life. In Dancing on Our Turtle’s Back: Stories of Nishnaabeg Re-Creation, Resurgence and a New Emergence Leanne Betasamosake Simpson points out that rebuilding needs to start from within, and Indigenous people require not only the re-establishment of pre-colonial history and customs but also the reintroduction of Indigenous traditions of governance and culture through the oral tradition of story-telling as a framework to inform social experience. Glen Coulthard expands on the theoretical framework of resurgence and refusal in Red Skin, White Masks: Rejecting the Colonial Politics of Recognition and presents a critical analysis of the historical and political experiences of Indigenous people within Canada. Rather than relying on recognition from within the colonial-settler relationship, Coulthard advocates for Indigenous sovereignty informed by an intellectual, social, political, and artistic movement that embodies a “Self-reflective revitalization” of traditional values, principles, and cultural practices. In This Is Not a Peace Pipe: Towards a Critical Indigenous Philosophy Dale Turner suggests that the way to undermine the power dynamics that perpetuate the conditions of colonialism is through the participation within the legal and political institutions of the Canadian state. Scholars, such as Ronald Niezen, Will Kymlicka, and Sheryl Lightfoot, have written on the subject of indigenous peoples’ international struggles for individual and collective rights. International recognition-based models have gained momentum since the 2007 United Nations Declaration of Rights of Indigenous Peoples. Acknowledging local variations, Indigenous people have developed a movement beyond national borders that strive to recognize the political autonomy by addressing issues surrounding land rights and cultural distinctiveness.

Keywords: [“indigenous”,”political”,”people”]
Source: https://plato.stanford.edu/entries/colonialism

Modern Science, Enlightenment, and the Domination of Nature: No Exit?

Returning once again to the main theme-the relation of modern science to enlightenment and the domination of nature-I will then try to show how the ‘stakes’ in this game are now being raised by molecular biology and neurosciences. Here is where I will end up: Domination of nature through the progress of the modern natural sciences is the defining historical dialectic of modernity, which has a distinctive internal contradiction that must be addressed and resolved if humanity is to be able to transcend this stage of historical development. ‘ Enlarged, collective domination over nature is matched at every staged by a comparably heightened domination by some people over others. Thus there is no sensible way in which ‘primitive objectification’ can be regarded as the first step on the road to the modern epoch and the form which the domination of nature takes there. The opening pages of Dialectic of Enlightenment correctly present Francis Bacon as the original Enlightenment thinker of the modern period, for without a doubt Bacon developed the clearest and most straightforward conception of ‘domination over nature’ and its relation to the new sciences of nature. The analysis of the underlying problematic is fundamentally different, not least in its concrete historical setting and in its source, namely, modern science and its social context. ‘ The gradual extension of this method into the realm of ‘moral science,’ politics, and economics has enabled thinkers ‘to make almost as sure progress in these sciences as they had in the natural sciences. For how could one not fully recognize, for example, the force and range in Condorcet’s account of the struggle waged by enlightenment thought against regressive and oppressive forms of law and social custom? Yet it is in critical theory’s failure to acknowledge the true significance of what the modern sciences of nature contributed in this regard that is one of its worst failings. Perhaps the worst failing of all is critical theory’s failure to engage the specific content of what has been achieved in the modern sciences of nature, and its permanent value in the human understanding of the world in which we live. Before discussing further where the tension between the two forms of science stands at present, I would like to explain the sense in which the project for the domination of nature is nearing completion. The analysis presented here proposes that domination of nature has a specific meaning, considered as a key historical feature of the modern period: namely, the project of the modern natural sciences to achieve a complete technological mastery over natural processes. The radical imbalance between inventive and transformative science puts modern society at increasing risk of having its powerful technologies thrown into the all-or-nothing ‘final battle’ named for the northern Israel town of Armageddon. A2: the secular power and immense wealth which ownership and control of the technologies derived from modern science bestow on certain social classes, individuals, nations, and imperial powers;. It is simply absurd to write off what they created thereby, the by now immense structure of the modern sciences of nature, which is surely, among other things, an extraordinary product of the creative human imagination, as nothing more the latest expression of a radically deficient instrumentalist approach to life. The ‘reconciliation’ of modern science and ancient religion remains an active project right down to the present, and both theologians and many working scientists are engaged in a dialogue about it.

Keywords: [“science”,”nature”,”human”]
Source: https://www.uta.edu/huma/agger/fastcapitalism/2_2/leiss.html