JR Test Site News for 01-19-2018

Teaching and Learning for a Sustainable Future

If climate change is the key process in the natural world impacting on sustainable development, then globalisation is the parallel process in the human world, creating both opportunities for, and barriers to, sustainable development. While globalisation is not a new process, it has accelerated rapidly since World War II, and is having many effects on people, the environment, cultures, national governments, economic development and human well-being in countries around the world. Objectives To understand basic concepts, processes and trends associated with globalisation; To assess the impacts of globalisation and the wide range of reactions they have caused around the world; To understand the interconnected nature of the major drivers of globalisation; To appreciate the complexity of teaching about globalisation; and. Q1: The story Good Morning World! was written to try to be “Typical” and have some relevance to students in as many parts of the world as possible. Beyond their world enclosed by trees there was, they were told, a wider world where there were hamlets similar to their own, and towns, and cities, and the sea, and beyond the sea other countries where people spoke languages different from their own. The major contemporary issues facing the world today – such as the topics of sustainable agriculture, gender and development, population, sustainable communities, tourism and so on in this section of Teaching and Learning for a Sustainable Future – are interdisciplinary. What are teachers around the world doing to help their students understand this systems perspective on the increasingly interconnected nature of the world today? What processes, issues and implications are students being asked to explore? Since World War II, and especially since the 1980s, governments have reduced many barriers to international trade through international agreements such as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and the World Trade Organization. Up to 90% of music sales is by just five corporations: EMI Records, Sony, Vivendi Universal, AOL Time Warner and BMG. These ‘Big Five’ produce and sell recorded music in all of the major markets in the world, but have their headquarters in the United States, the largest of the world’s markets. Let us begin an economic recovery that is not only robust, but also just, inclusive, and sustainable – lifting the entire world. Life expectancy has almost doubled in the developing world since WWII and is starting to close the gap to the developed world where the improvement has been smaller. Seen through the eyes of the vast majority of men and women around the world, globalisation has not met their simple aspiration for decent jobs, livelihoods and a better future for their children. Slowing progress towards the MDGs. A 2009 report by the World Bank predicted that global GDP will decline for the first time since World War II as a result of the failure of governments to regulate financial institutions and globalisation properly. The problems of the developing world are also the problems of the developed world. At their meetings in 2009 to deal with the global financial crisis, the leaders of the twenty largest economies in the world, the G20 have replaced the narrow G8 group as the major international economic forum in the world.

Keywords: [“world”,”globalisation”,”global”]
Source: http://www.unesco.org/education/tlsf/mods/theme_c/mod18.html

The Enlightenment: Introduction

The Enlightenment, a revolution in philosophy, was strictly a Western phenomenon, linked to Modernism in the sense that certain “Modern” social and economic conditions propelled a new form of thinking. The Enlightenment can be understood precisely in terms of its entomology-that which sheds light: light into the darkness of religious “Superstition,” a word that very precisely targeted religious thinking dependent upon the will of God. The principal conflict of the Enlightenment was the contest between established religious beliefs and a growing body of scientific knowledge that grounded knowledge, not in the mind of God, but in an exercise of empirical evidence. The Enlightenment as a very particular way of thinking in the West resulted in the so-called “Death of God” and the rise of science. First, the Enlightenment established new philosophical ideas concerning the grounds of knowledge-epistemology-that is the knowledge was based upon empirical observation and provable hypotheses. A complex phenomenon, the Enlightenment was defined by one central question: how can life be lived and understood without God? If God was “Dead,” as Friedrich Nietzsche proposed a century later, then the Deity was certainly an animated corpse, going to its demise, kicking and screaming, and becoming reanimated at unpredictable intervals. The question for the Enlightenment today would be are these vestigial reactions or a genuine pendulum swing against three centuries of being “Enlightened?”. Unquestioning belief in God was challenged by two forces that proved to be critical to Enlightenment thinking. The concept of “Natural rights” would be articulated by Enlightenment philosophers, from Jean-Jacques Rousseau to Thomas Jefferson but it dated back to the Twelfth Century and was present in a nascent form during the Medieval era. Using the deductive and logical practices of science, rational thinking, and the powers of human reason, the Enlightenment set out to discover universal laws, to take the place of God. To the extent it was successful, the Enlightenment ended eighteen hundred years of spiritualized thinking. Although the Enlightenment could not guarantee fully enlightened thinking, but the alternative to the Enlightenment, with all of its a prorias was, as David Hume, remarked, “. In his recent 2010 book, The Enlightenment: A Geneaology, the historian Dan Edelstein, suggested that the modern Enlightenment, apart from its early roots in the writings of English or Dutch philosophers, really began with the French philosophes of the seventeenth and eighteenth century. In his 2007 book Placing the Enlightenment: Thinking Geographically About the Age of Reason, Withers stated that the “Where” of the Enlightenment was as important as the “What?”. The new philosophical system proposed a new society and a new form of knowledge that would have profound impact upon art and artists, creating new ways of defining both art and artist and developing an entirely new branch of philosophy called “Aesthetics.” The idea of “Artistic freedom” is an outgrowth of the Enlightenment introduction of the concept of the “Individual.” The idea of the defiant artist, challenging the establishment and shocking the conservative public is an Enlightenment concept of rethinking received wisdom.

Keywords: [“Enlightenment”,”new”,”God”]
Source: http://arthistoryunstuffed.com/enlightenment

JR Test Site News for 01-18-2018

A New Democratic Enlightenment?

For once upon a time the Social Democratic Workers’ Party of Austria was among the most powerful, dynamic and forward-thinking party machines of the modern world. The theme of our European Forum Alpbach symposium on politics is the New Enlightenment so here’s my opening conjecture: the language and ideal of social democracy has its roots in the 18th-century Enlightenment. My research on Thomas Paine and the eighteenth century tried to complicate matters by making the point that the Enlightenment also included champions of civil rights, social justice and democratic representation, rebels and radicals who were sharply aware of the miseries suffered by people ground down by modern institutions not of their own choosing. The social democratic critique of free market capitalism proved compelling for millions of people. There is no time for me to recall the great moments of high drama, conceptual strife and contradictions, dark sides and luscious ironies that form part of a recorded history that includes courageous struggles of the downtrodden to form co-operatives, friendly societies, free trade unions, and to spread literacy and win the struggle for the universal franchise through social democratic parties. Membership of social democratic parties has dipped dramatically. Social democratic parties were among the slowest to react to the upheavals effected by the digital, globally networked communications revolution that began during the 1960s. Social democratic parties have shown limited awareness of the emergence, since the 1940s, of monitory democracy. Operating within the boundaries of territorial states, social democratic parties and governments have consequently been weakened and victimised by what Albert Einstein dubbed ‘spooky action at a distance’: cross-border butterfly effects, arbitrage pressures and quantum tunnels, all of which have greatly complicated the politics of wealth and income redistribution;. The rise of the People’s Republic of China as an economic great power on the global power stage has had two ironic effects: it has weakened an important part of the social support base of social democracy and established a viable ‘socialist’ alternative to capitalism in social democratic form: one party state capitalism legitimated by locally-made forms of democratic rule; and. For more than half a generation, beginning with works such as Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring , green thinkers, scientists, journalists, politicians and social movement activists have been pointing out that the whole social democratic tradition is implicated deeply in the spoliation of our planet. Hence they call for a new politics with green qualities, a new democratic enlightenment that poses a fundamental challenge to both the style and substance of the old social democracy, or what remains of it. Especially striking is the new enlightenment’s call for the ‘de-commodification’ of the biosphere, in effect, the replacement of social democracy’s will to dominate nature and its innocent attachment to History with a more prudent sense of ‘deep time’ aware of the fragile complexity of the biosphere and its multiple rhythms. The new democratic enlightenment is opposed to the old social democratic metaphysics of economic progress, and the machismo of its favoured imagery of warrior male bodies gathered at the gates of pits, docks and factories, singing hymns to industrial growth, under smoke-stained skies. These social democrats aim to retrieve its most fruitful old ‘wish image’ to deal politically with the new problems of our time.

Keywords: [“social”,”democracy”,”New”]
Source: http://theconversation.com/a-new-democratic-enlightenment-66013

capitalism – An Outside Chance

While A Foodie’s Guide is lacking in recipes or menu ideas, it shines in helping us to understand the struggles of the men and women who work in the farms and packing plants. It explains why major capitalists have typically shown little interest in direct involvement in agriculture – preferring to make their money selling farm inputs, trading farm commodities, or turning farm products into the thousands of refined products that fill supermarket shelves. “Markets have been around a long time,” he writes, “But before the nineteenth century did not organize society as they do today.” He shows how capitalism in England arose concurrently with vigorous state intervention which drove people off their small farms and into the industrial labour pool. Even today, people go to great lengths to avoid having their lands swallowed up by capitalist agriculture – especially since this transition typically results in widespread consolidation of farms, leaving most former farmers to try to earn a living as landless labourers. Holt-Giménez offers a good primer in Marxist theory here, showing why it has always been difficult for capitalists to extract surplus value directly from the labour of farmers. In industrialized countries, the farm workers who pick fruit and vegetables or work in packing plants tend to be immigrants on temporary work permits. In the US a large majority of farms, including massive farms which raise monoculture crops using huge machinery, are run by individual families rather than corporations. An important recent development in this regard is contract farming, which Holt-Giménez refers to as “a modern version of sharecropping and tenant farming”. “Through a market-specification contract, the firm guarantees the producer a buyer, based on agreements regarding price and quality, and with a resource-providing contract the firm also provides production inputs. If the firm provides all the inputs and buys all of the product, it essentially controls the production process while the farmer basically provides land and labor.” Meanwhile farmers with purchase contracts in hand can go to the bank for operating loans, but they lose control over most decisions about production on their own land. Contract farming dominates the poultry industry in the US and the pork market is now rapidly undergoing “Chickenization”. “Because peasant-style farming usually takes place on smaller farms, the total output is less than capitalist or entrepreneurial farms. However, their total output per unit of land tends to be higher. This is why, as capitalist agriculture converts peasant-style farms to entrepreneurial and capitalist farms, there is often a drop in productivity.” Holt-Giménez writes “Farmers are nutrient-deficient because they don’t have enough land to grow a balanced diet. These are political, not technical problems.” Yes, access to land is a critical political issue – but can we be sure that the answers are only political, and not in part technical as well? After all, famines predated capitalism, and have occurred in widely varying economic contexts even in the past century. Facing these challenges, farming knowledge and techniques that used to work very well may require serious adaptation. With a good grasp of the way capitalism distorts food production, plus an understanding of the class struggles that permeate the global food business, foodies stand a chance of turning the food movement into an effective force for change.

Keywords: [“farm”,”food”,”land”]
Source: https://anoutsidechance.com/tag/capitalism

JR Test Site News for 01-18-2018

Trump’s Right-Hand Man Steve Bannon Called for Christian Holy War: Now He’s on the National Security Council

Steve Bannon, President Donald Trump’s right-hand man, made what was essentially a call for a Christian holy war in a speech in a international conference only a few years ago. Bannon, chief strategist and senior counselor to Trump, is notorious for his extreme right-wing views. In remarks to a 2014 conference at the Vatican, Bannon warned his Christian audience, “We’re at the very beginning stages of a very brutal and bloody conflict.” “We are in an outright war against jihadists, Islam, Islamic fascism,” Bannon continued. In his speech, Bannon articulated a view of the world as a constant conflict between the capitalist “Judeo-Christian West,” which is a benevolent force of “Enlightenment,” and the malevolent forces of socialism, atheism, and Islam. Ultra-right-wing pundit Glenn Beck compared Bannon to the Nazi propagandist Joseph Goebbels, a close ally of Adolf Hitler, and said the Trump campaign was “Grooming Brownshirts,” in reference to Nazi paramilitaries. Republican strategist John Weaver, who worked on Republican John Kasich’s 2016 presidential campaign, likewise warned that, with Bannon as Trump’s chief strategist, “The racist, fascist extreme right is represented footsteps from the Oval Office.” Bannon made these holy war remarks in a speech-which has previously been reported on by BuzzFeed-at the 2014 International Conference on Human Dignity, the third annual meeting organized by the Rome-based Christian organization Dignitatis Humanae Institute. A glowing endorsement from Bannon is conspicuously featured at the top of the Dignitatis Humanae Institute’s website, in which President Trump’s right-hand man calls the group’s founder Benjamin Harnwell “The smartest guy in Rome” and “a very tough guy.” Bannon has identified Breitbart as “The platform for the alt-right,” a popular euphemism for the growing white supremacist, neo-fascist movement in the U.S. and Europe. Bannon kicked off his 2014 speech warning that “The world, and particularly the Judeo-Christian West, is in a crisis.” Bannon criticized the libertarianism of figures like Ayn Rand for “Taking away from the underlying spiritual, moral foundations of Christianity and really Judeo-Christian belief.” He added, “That form of capitalism is quite different, when you really look at it, to what I call the enlightened capitalism of the Judeo-Christian West.”. In the early years of the 21st century Bannon argued, “I believe that we’ve come horribly off track.” He went on, claiming the time marked “The very beginning stages of a very brutal and bloody conflict.” Bannon spoke of the increasing secularism among young people in the West as a dangerous problem. “If we do not bind together as partners, with others in other countries,” Bannon added, then “This conflict is only going to metastasize.”

Keywords: [“Bannon”,”people”,”really”]
Source: https://www.alternet.org/steve-bannon-christian-holy-war-islam-donald-trump-capitalism-secularism-atheism

Building the House of Breitbart

In 1991, Breitbart returned to his hometown after four inebriated years at Tulane University in New Orleans, with nothing to show for it but an American Studies degree and a newly purchased Saab convertible. As kids, Breitbart and his childhood friend Larry Solov – his future legal counsel and currently the president and CEO of Breitbart News Network – were once repeatedly pelted with tennis balls by blockbuster action star Arnold Schwarzenegger, who reportedly cackled as they huddled in the corner of the court weeping. Discursively, these right-wing theories on cultural perversion hardly began with Breitbart. A famously bad student – with minimal interest in intellectual coherence but with the conviction of a cornered animal – Breitbart began building this argument on the fly in whatever medium made available to him. At the time, Breitbart had high hopes that he could somehow mass-produce the success he garnered by stumbling on O’Keefe and Giles. His larger-than-life presence, his proficiency in cable-news optics, his Barnum-like ability to pull off promotional stunts: all of these qualities left many with the illusion that Andrew Breitbart was the animating force behind Breitbart News. In reality, Andrew Breitbart was more like an ad-agency creative director – adept at getting his client’s message maximal attention, but ultimately replaceable. A quieter Breitbart News emerged from the demise of their loudmouth standard-bearer, one that its opponents found blessedly easier to ignore. As with Big Government’s ability to serve as an intermediary between right-wing political operatives and Tea Party audiences, Breitbart London could occupy a similar nexus at a similarly critical time. These investments kept Breitbart News above water for years, operating like an even more opaque version of the dark-money patronage system that propped up its nonprofit allies. One arguable barometer of his success is the surprising extent to which liberal writers have helped Breitbart News write the Left out of recent populist history. While there are genuine questions about whether Bannon shares his benefactors’ alarmist views on radical Islam – one Breitbart apostate, Ben Shapiro has categorized Bannon as merely “An aggressive self-promoter” of “Unending ambition” – such questions are surely superseded by how aggressively Bannon has been arguing for these beliefs. As many of the Breitbart exiles who opposed Trump would later tell the Guardian, “Bannon aggressively pushed stories against immigrants and supported linking minorities to terrorism and crime.” Central to these concerns is mediagenic enfant terrible Milo Yiannopoulos, a Bannon hire poached from the UK tech press during the Breitbart London expansion. The sad reality is that Bannon’s and Yiannopoulos’s crusade is a logical extension of the project that Breitbart himself began with Hollywood Interrupted over a decade ago.

Keywords: [“Breitbart”,”New”,”Bannon”]
Source: https://www.jacobinmag.com/2016/11/breitbart-news-drudge-alt-right-koch-trump/

JR Test Site News for 01-18-2018

NY Times Says Charles Manson Inspired Conservatism, Tears Apart Capitalism for Destroying the Earth

RUSH: The New York Times, you know, the New York Times is a Bible to the American left. The New York Times has published two stories recently which, you know, I know who the Times is. You know why? Because what Manson was really doing back in 1969 when he started killing rich white people was to inspire – he wanted to create a race war, because Charles Manson didn’t like African-Americans. Now, the problem is that the New York Times readership is a bunch of sponges and they’re gonna soak this up, and they’re gonna be running around thinking that they’re now enlightened and they’ve learned something. It’s why there never will be, I don’t care what the dreams and desires are, but yet here’s the New York Times with yet another op-ed in a period of time I don’t know how many op-eds like this they have run: the problem in the world is capitalism. This piece crediting Charles Manson for being the intellectual inspiration and motivation for modern-day conservatism, how does that pass the editorial board, the op-ed page at the New York Times? It’s because number wants that story to run. BREAK TRANSCRIPT. RUSH: Now the New York Times piece on capitalism as the threat to the world and it must be replaced. Because there will not be any overproduction, there will not be any mining of minerals that will destroy the earth, there will not be any excesses of anything because we’ll only need what we need and we’ll only produce what we need and we’ll only use what we need. Of course, if nobody makes any money then what’s the motivation for this? What is the impetus? Why would anybody do it? And where does the original seed cost come from? I mean, if you’re gonna produce product X, somebody’s gonna have to make the investment in what’s necessary to produce it or manufacture it. “Yes, there is, Mr. Limbaugh. For the good of the community.” Oh, really? Everybody in a community is gonna do what they’re doing now and they’re gonna sell what they sell now, they’re gonna make what they make now, they’re gonna produce what they produce now for no money, you’re gonna buy it for no more than what it costs, and everybody’s gonna be just hunky-dory happy at the end of every day when all of this commerce is gone? “We have a much better chance of making it past the 22nd century if environmental regulations are designed by a team of people with no formal education in a democratic socialist society than we do if they are made by a team of the most esteemed scientific luminaries in a capitalist society. The intelligence of the brightest people around is no match for the rampant stupidity of capitalism.” BREAK TRANSCRIPT. RUSH: New York Times op-ed: “Charles Manson Was A Far Right Wing Ideologue – The New York Times published an op-ed Tuesday suggesting that Charles Manson was the harbinger for alt-right and white supremacists. Manson’s mission to cajole a slew of hippies to go on a murdering spree in 1969 to kickstart a race war paved the way for today’s alt-right.” Manson supposedly didn’t like blacks so he thought that he could kick off a race war by murdering rich white people in the Hollywood area and somehow making it look like blacks did it and kick off a race war. Charles Manson, who served a life sentence – he would have been put to death except the state of California got rid of the death penalty right around the time he was being sentenced. Every parole hearing, the Drive-Bys would get together and wonder if there’s any way Manson could somehow being released.

Keywords: [“people”,”any”,”gonna”]
Source: https://www.rushlimbaugh.com/daily/2017/11/22/ny-times-says…

Puritanism and Predestination, Divining America, TeacherServe®, National Humanities Center

With the restoration of the Stuart monarchy in 1660, Puritanism went into eclipse in England, largely because the movement was identified with the upheaval and radicalism of the Civil War and Cromwell’s tyrannical government, a virtual military dictatorship. Another group, the Presbyterians, who quickly came to dominate the religious life of Scotland and later migrated in large numbers to northern Ireland, also settled many communities in New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania during the late seventeenth century and throughout the eighteenth century. Accordingly, New England’s Congregational churches were self-governing bodies, answerable to no higher authority; mid-Atlantic Presbyterian churches enjoyed somewhat less autonomy because a hierarchy of “Presbyteries” and “Synods” made up of leading laymen and clergymen set policy for individual congregations. New England Congregationalists adopted even stricter standards for admission to their churches-the requirement that each person applying for membership testify publicly to his or her experience of “Conversion.” Title page of the 1560 “Geneva Bible,”which reflected Calvinist doctrine and was probablythe Bible taken by the Puritans to the New World. Finally, Europeans had “Discovered” and begun colonizing what was to them an entirely new and strange world in the Americas. Eliot, a Puritan minister in 17th-century Massachusetts, was known as the”Apostle of the Indians.”Few subjects in early modern history have received more attention from scholars than Puritanism, and historians of early America have focused the most intense scrutiny on the Congregationalists of colonial New England. The most profound modern interpreter of that Puritan culture is Perry Miller, whose work first appeared in the middle decades of the twentieth century and whose influence endures to the present with such works as The New England Mind and Errand into the Wilderness. In their view, the growth of commercial capitalism in New England and the spread of “Enlightened” learning had yielded, by the opening decades of the eighteenth century, a far more secular, competitive, litigious, and materialistic society-one in which “Puritan” piety was rapidly being eroded by “Yankee” worldliness. In the 1980s and 1990s, other scholars have argued that Puritanism’s influence held sway even among the cosmopolitan merchants of bustling New England seaports well into the eighteenth century and that all inhabitants of the region as a whole long remained steeped in Puritan values and spirituality. While scholars continue to debate the strength of Puritanism among eighteenth-century New Englanders, broader agreement has emerged about the region’s religious culture during the seventeenth century. The then “New” social historians of the 1970s were inclined toward the suspicion that the Puritan doctrine being handed down from the pulpit may have mattered little to many ordinary New England lay people. Subsequent research has now left little doubt that Puritan theology compelled the loyalties of early New Englanders of all classes and that even the humblest farmers and fisherfolk were often well versed in the basic doctrines pertaining to predestination and conversion. It’s a great way to enliven a dull hour-and a quick way to get some sense of the complexity of beliefs about the supernatural among early New Englanders of every rank and education. These remarks don’t even begin to do full justice to the lively scholarship on New England Puritanism that has evolved over the last half of the twentieth century.

Keywords: [“New”,”Puritan”,”England”]
Source: http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/eighteen/ekeyinfo/puritan.htm

JR Test Site News for 01-17-2018

A Buddhist ‘s Call for a Middle Way in Politics

Shortly into giving a poetry reading to a new audience, I sometimes find myself saying-when I’m talking about calm-that I’m a Buddhist. Just as right action makes Buddhists deplore sexual predators, right speech helps to explain why Buddhists detest lies from the president or from Democrats, as well as detest the whole concept of beliefs masked as “Alternate facts.” Name-calling, insults, hypocrisy, gossip are an anathema. Of course my beliefs and actions aren’t those of all Buddhists. A popular stereotype of Buddhists has us all sitting calmly, with equilibrium and some might say with smugness, under Bodhi trees, small flowers in our hands as we vaguely smile at the ins and outs of politics. Another stereotype is of the Buddhist martyr monk, he who so believes in peace that he burns himself to death in a public place. Buddhists worldwide can be just as varied in their politics and political actions and inactions as Christians, Jews, Muslims, Hindus, and those of other religions and philosophies can be varied in theirs. Still, most American Buddhists are both left-leaning Democrat moderates or moderate-to-liberal Republicans whose tendency is to tamp things down, to go easy on or to not go along at all with inflammatory rhetoric accompanied by clever ad hominem. Such tamping is a main reason I feel myself grateful for being a Buddhist-more specifically identifying myself in contemporary America as a Zen Buddhist. As they struggle to fill gaps in the 24-hour news cycle, journalists are being conned, bullied, coerced, or flattered into presenting gossip, speculation, and rumor as a kind of “News” that could be termed “Enternews,” short for how entertainment and news in our era of mass media have melded into each other, interchangeable in a way the nation has not experienced since the turn-of-the-19th-century days of yellow journalism. At such a time, Buddhist practices of meditation and mindfulness have become a draw for a battered electorate who regard them as great aids in reducing stress and anxiety. Gaining perspective from meditation encourages the Buddhist acknowledgment of change and impermanence as the primary roots of life rather than stasis or the attempt to keep things as they are or were. Buddhists will recognize that desire and greed are root causes for the human condition of constant suffering. Should you ask a Buddhist for advice on how to cope in these days, how to remain calm, he or she may well advise Americans to turn our attention to other things. Resist answering the phone and/or obsessively moving from one website to another website: the New York Times, Fox News, Washington Times, Wall Street Journal, Los Angeles Times, Washington Post, CNN, USA Today, Chicago Tribune, Boston Globe, Christian Science Monitor…. Do we really need all this information? These constantly changing opinions? These new revelations? This new bid to get us involved, involved, involved? Here’s Buddhist-influenced Henry David Thoreau in Walden. The Buddhist perspective may turn us, for a few hours a day at least, toward things which may or should matter as much or more than politics.

Keywords: [“Buddhist”,”new”,”time”]
Source: https://tricycle.org/trikedaily/buddhist-republican-politics/

Steve Bannon’s Post White House Agenda is a Crusade for Ethnocentric Populism

Last Friday, President Trump’s controversial and besieged chief strategist Steve Bannon left the White House, ending seven months as the unabashed driver of the president’s populist agenda. During his return to Breitbart, Bannon announced that the Trump presidency was “Over,” but that he planned to advance his populist agenda and go “To war for Trump against his opponents- on Capitol Hill, in the media, and in corporate America.” At the center of Bannon’s populism is what he calls the “Crisis.” surrounding western Judeo-Christian culture, one that is caused by several distinct forces. According to Bannon, the first threat to Judeo-Christian culture is the ideological advancement of Islamic fascism. In his 2014 speech, Bannon stated that during the twentieth century the West used “Enlightened capitalism” to generate large amounts of wealth, and take back Europe by defeating the “Barbaric empire of the Far East.” In addition to providing territorial gains, Bannon explained that “Enlightened capitalism” offered a humane and equitable form of wealth exchange. The emergence of state sponsored and commodity driven capitalism, says Bannon, has denigrated Judeo-Christian economics- a system that empowers its chosen people through “Divine providence” to be “The creators of wealth”- in favor of a small percentage of wealthy elites. Based on these existential threats to Judeo-Christian culture, Bannon has put his populist ideology into practice- taking aim at destroying Islamism and the elite institutions that threaten the Judeo-Christian way of life. As a member of President Trump’s staff, Bannon lobbied for the Muslim travel ban, and loudly voiced his desire to destroy the ‘administrative state. Just months into the Trump administration, Bannon told the New York Times that the media should “Shut up” and was the “Opposition party.” As he left the White House, Bannon referred to himself as “Bannon the Barbarian” and vowed to “Crush the opposition.” Even more disconcerting is the ethnocentric basis for Bannon’s populist message. Throughout his 2014 speech, Bannon lamented the destruction of Judeo-Christian values, and vowed to restore the culture to its previous state of prosperity. As a result, Bannon’s populism aligns with the ethno-nationalist trend, witnessed in Charlottesville, that is emerging in the US. By denouncing the ‘mitigating forces’ against Judeo-Christians, such as globalism and Islam, Bannon has created an ‘us against them’ narrative- designating Judeo-Christians as the embattled true holders of world enlightenment. It is within Bannon’s message, and his ethnocentric howl for revolution, that we find the danger in his populist ideology. Bannon’s sense of populism already contributes to poverty-based racial conflicts, like the one seen in Charlottesville, that are angry expressions of financial destitution manifested as ground-level ethnic conflicts. Though Bannon no longer holds a position in the Trump administration, his media platform with Breitbart News provides a wide audience for his message.

Keywords: [“Bannon”,”Judeo-Christian”,”Trump”]
Source: https://intpolicydigest.org/2017/08/25/steve-bannon-s-post-white-house-agenda-crusade-ethnocentric-populism/

JR Test Site News for 01-17-2018

The Neuroscience Of Enlightenment

Mutualist Blog: Free Market Anti-Capitalism

The first feature, the free market itself-the maximum possible degree of economic freedom-is a goal for Graubart in it’s own right. Without a universal entitlement, a totally free and unregulated market will lead to barbarism through the concentration of capital, technological unemployment and mass impoverishment, and eventually class war and revolution. Graubart explains the basic principles in more detail with the acronym AFFEERCE, with AF standing forAlternative Family, FE for Free Enterprise, E for Entitlement, RC for Reproductive Control and E for Enlightenment. Personal entitlements include nutritious food, safe shelter, unlimited free education, and quality medical…. Reproductive Control – Families must pay the present value for a lifetime of entitlements before they are allowed to adopt or raise a child. Even this amount might be phased in over 100 or more years…. Regardless of cost, if the parents cannot pay, the child will be placed with a family that can afford the child…. Enlightenment – In a free society, all religions, spiritualties, beliefs or lack thereof, are welcome. A libertarian society in which the welfare state was replaced by a universal basic income funded by a tax on unearned wealth, the regulatory state was replaced with prohibitive taxes on emissions of CO2 and toxic chemicals, and the market was otherwise completely free, would at least be a huge step in the right direction. The Alternative Family, with its formal legal charter and bylaws, is the official building block of the AFFEERCE society, and all its members’ Entitlements are shared within the family unit as a condition of membership. The state and the large corporation exist for purposes that will be obsolete in a free society with cheap small-scale production technology, horizontal network communications and peer-to-peer organizations. The Universal Entitlement is necessary in a free market economy, Graubart says, because without it the natural trends of the free market will impoverish the great majority of the population and create an army of paupers ready to pull society down around their ears. Because of the entitlements, the division of labor and the economies of scale, every AFFEERCE family is free to form their own society. While it will never be the case, as it is today, where the lower 40% of the population has.2 percent of the wealth in a truly free society, there is a level of inequality that has been shown to favor optimal success in business, science and economics. “[y]ou might be surprised to find out that in a truly free society, many of the reasons to have children in pre-modern times will come back in a thoroughly modern context. First of all, his very model of a society in which households are polarized between comfortable, educated people who exercise restraint and uneducated, impoverished breeders desperate for the six hundred bucks each child would bring, presumes-as I’ve already discussed at considerable length-a society much like our own in many respects. I think it’s much more likely a free society would be characterized by a more nearly even distribution of wealth. For all my disagreements with this book, I do share one broad agreement with Graubart: the overall prosperity and happiness of a society in which subsistence no longer depends on one’s willingness to accept work on whatever degrading and exploitative terms it is offered, in which people are free to exercise their full creative faculties taking advantage of productive opportunities afforded through association with their family, friends, neighbors and equals, where the labor threshold for comfortable subsistence is low and leisure is plentiful, where everyone sits under their own fig tree and vine and none makes them afraid.

Keywords: [“society”,”Family”,”Graubart”]
Source: http://mutualist.blogspot.com

What combination of factors were necessary to begin the Industrial Revolution? B. The development of machines, including steam engines and the internal combustion engine, made it possible to exploit vast new resources of energy stored in fossil fuels, specifically coal and oil. Where did factories start, and where/how did the factory system spread? How did factories change the nature of labor itself? D. As the new methods of industrial production became more common in parts of northwestern Europe, they spread to other parts of Europe and the United States, Russia and Japan. E. The “Second industrial revolution” led to new methods in the production of steel, chemicals, electricity and precision machinery during the second half of the nineteenth century. II. New patterns of global trade and production developed and further integrated the global economy as industrialists sought raw materials and new markets for the increasing amount and array of goods produced in their factories. As industrial production rose, what type(s) of production declined? C. The rapid increases in productivity caused by industrial production encouraged industrialized states to seek out new consumer markets for their finished goods What “New” markets did industrialized states look/ create for their exports? D. The need for specialized and limited metals for industrial production, as well as the global demand for gold, silver and diamonds as forms of wealth led to the development of extensive mining centers. How did the Ind. Rev. affect social and demographic characteristics? A. New social classes, including the middle class and the industrial working class, developed. New ideas about nationalism, race, gender, class and culture also developed that both facilitated the spread of transoceanic empires and new states, as well as justifying anti-imperial resistance and the formation of new national identities. How did anti-imperialism affect the Ottoman Empire’s territories? D. New states developed on the edges of empire. Key Concept 5.3 Nationalism, Revolution, and Reform The eighteenth century marked the beginning of an intense period of revolution and rebellion against existing governments and the establishment of new nation-states around the world. These rebellions sometimes resulted in the formation of new states and stimulated the development of new ideologies. How did Enlightenment thinkers affect understandings of the relationship between the natural world and humans? B. Intellectuals critiqued the role that religion played in public life, insisting on the importance of reason as opposed to revelation How did the Enlightenment evaluate the role of religion in public life? C. Enlightenment thinkers developed new political ideas about the individual, natural rights and the social contract. What is the basis of national identity and nationalism? How did governments use these new ideas on their populations? III. Increasing discontent with imperial rule and the spread of Enlightenment ideas propelled reformist and revolutionary movements. How did imperial governments react to nationalistic rebellions? IV. The global spread of European political and social thought and the increasing number of rebellions stimulated new transnational ideologies and solidarities. B. The new global capitalist economy continued to rely on coerced and semi-coerced labor migration, including slavery, Chinese and Indian indentured servitude and convict labor. How were gender roles affected by migration? How did migrants preserve and transplant their culture in their new homes? How did receiving societies react to the new presence of foreign migrants? ..

Keywords: [“new”,”how”,”state”]
Source: http://meguerian.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/Unit-5-Study-Guide-.pdf

JR Test Site News for 01-16-2018

bell hooks: Cultural Criticism & Transformation

Rhetorical Style and Bourgeois Virtue: Capitalism and Civil Society in the British Enlightenment By Mark Garrett Longaker

The political scientist Francis Fukuyama has argued that “Capitalism” requires “Certain premodern cultural habits” in order to “Work properly.” Even as he concedes that market societies require ethical behaviors to engender trust, Fukuyama never imagines that linguistic syntax instills a sense of “Moral obligation [or] duty toward community.” The economist Deirdre McCloskey celebrates the bourgeois virtues because capitalism makes people good and good people make capitalism work: “Virtues support the market … [and] the market supports the virtues.” But McCloskey makes no mention of metaphors or similes. In the chapters to follow, I argue that the British Enlightenment wove all three disciplines into a cohesive vision of free-market capitalism, rhetorical style, and bourgeois virtue. To summarize my principal argument, in the late seventeenth, mid-eighteenth, and mid-nineteenth centuries a British philosopher, a political economist, a rhetorical theorist, and a sociologist all tried to cultivate bourgeois virtue by teaching rhetorical style, each building on others’ ideas and each addressing a unique stage of capitalist development. In both arenas, the bourgeois subject exhibits the same rhetorical virtues to sustain civil society. Hegel argued that civil society is a free and open arena “Between the family and the state.” The “Creation of civil society,” said Hegel, “Belongs to the modern world.” Civil society is the domain of the bourgeoisie, the place where free people exchange goods and ideas to achieve reasoned cooperation and to pursue personal profit. Their rationally self-interested behavior results in an unintended social good, for “The particular end takes on the form of universality, and gains satisfaction by simultaneously satisfying the welfare of others.” Hegel was heavily influenced by English political economy, so his notion of civil society repeats a basic presumption that Hegel inherited from the British Enlightenment: in bourgeois civil society, social welfare arises from the unintended consequences of rationally selfish behavior. Since the Enlightenment affection for belletrism and the plain style was built on a synthesis of civic virtue and civil society, I will spend a few more paragraphs discussing these terms. The British Enlightenment fascination with aesthetic effect in prose style also recalls the bourgeois hope for civil society. While the separation of civic virtue from civil society helps to explain British Enlightenment rhetoric, this distinction suggests two wholly separate traditions and a clean transition from the ancient to the modern world, from Renaissance civic virtue to bourgeois civil society. For centuries, even as civil society was emerging, beliefs about civic virtue persisted and sometimes reinforced people’s hopes for the bourgeois public sphere. According to Pocock, Scottish intellectuals defined “a morality in which virtue might be shown arising from sources in society, culture, and commerce, and existing independently of the practice of autonomous politics.” For the Scottish Enlightenment’s leading writers civic virtue arises in civil society. Bourgeois, and civil society in such detail, I stated this book’s principal argument: in the late seventeenth, mid-eighteenth, and mid-nineteenth centuries a British philosopher, a political economist, a rhetorical theorist, and a sociologist all tried to cultivate bourgeois virtue by teaching rhetorical style, each building on others’ ideas and each addressing a unique stage of capitalist development. Each chapter in this book explains how one British Enlightenment intellectual wove civic virtue into civil society by promoting clarity and gentility in rhetorical style. My study of capitalism and civil society in the British Enlightenment reveals that our age is not exceptional. A glance back at the British Enlightenment reminds us that the earliest bourgeois citizens adorned themselves and their language because they believed that capitalism requires rhetorical style and bourgeois virtue.

Keywords: [“virtue”,”society”,”civil”]
Source: http://www.psupress.org/Books/Titles/978-0-271-07086-5.html

The Legacy of Puritanism, Divining America, TeacherServe®, National Humanities Center

Two leading literary and cultural scholars of New England Puritanism and its legacy, Harvard Professors Perry Miller in the 1940s and 50s and, more recently, Sacvan Bercovitch, the studied the rhetorical strategies of the New England Puritans and demonstrated the remarkable extent to which the leaders and clergy created a rich American Christian mythology to describe their Providential role as the new Chosen People in world history. With Winthrop as Governor, the Puritans, as they were called by their enemies, established a government and churches and initially negotiated with the local tribes for land; later they would decide that God had intended for the land to be freely taken by the English. While the Hutchinson case is the most famous of many theological and political upheavals that occurred in the first decades of the colonies, Roger Williams was also disturbed by the preparation doctrine, and he disputed the use being made of Biblical typology to construct such notions as the Puritans being the new Chosen People and Boston being the new Zion. In 1649, the Puritan dissenters in England overthrew the monarchy and executed Charles I, and Oliver Cromwell governed the Protectorate in the 1650s. Immigration to New England accelerated after the Puritans lost power in England, but tensions arose again when the newcomers could not meet the strict standards for conversion and church membership and were denied land and voting rights that were reserved for the converted. Because the Puritans believed that the Bible and Nature should be closely studied for signs of God’s intentions, they were acutely alarmed by a series of terrible events that occurred in these years: earthquakes, plagues, violent storms, explosions and fires in the town and aboard ships, and crimes such as murders and suicides, all providing evidence of God’s anger. “With New England firmly under English control and a new cosmopolitan world view from Europe was pervading cities like Boston, the communities that the Puritan founders created were transformed. By the 1730s, what remained of American Puritanism was split into three Protestant sects. In the first years of the eighteenth century, most Congregational churches in New England began to liberalize and to de-emphasize the strict Calvinist doctrines; as they tried to open up the churches to more new members, these liberal clergy were call the”Old Lights’. Their uses of the imagery, myths, and verbal structures of the Puritan sermon kept the jeremiad alive. In spite of these developments, the legacy of American Puritanism would continue to feed a sense of colonial pride, ambition, and competitiveness that New England had achieved in the seventeenth century. From early on, the Puritans had difficulty keeping God’s grace and business profits separated. While the Puritans never read Weber or Bercovitch and would have difficulty understanding their arguments, their behavior reflected an unconscious recognition of the ways that the spiritual calling and the material calling, as they called them, could yield earthy and heavenly rewards at the same time. Since the fall of the World Trade Center, a host of non-fiction books have appeared that critique the failures in American society that led to the disaster and seek answers for restoring the country to an earlier stability and security. Many people in other countries identify American as puritans, and in spite of the high percentage of the population of the United States that has come from abroad, many of them embrace the some of the puritan values such as long hours of hard work, few vacation and days off, pride in not missing work, and they pass these values onto their children. As long as such belief persists, the puritan rituals of national repentance, reawakening, and renewal will continue. The Puritan idea of Americans as the second Chosen People of God has played an important and lasting role in the views of Americans about their own country and the views of those abroad about the way in which the United States has employed the idea of the City on the Hill.

Keywords: [“Puritan”,”American”,”New”]
Source: http://nationalhumanitiescenter.org/tserve/eighteen/ekeyinfo/legacy.htm

JR Test Site News for 01-16-2018

Why Self Interest is Not in Your Interest

Islam and the Enlightenment

Many writers are prepared to acknowledge Muslim cultural and scientific achievements, but always with the caveat that Islamic civilisation never experienced an equivalent to the Enlightenment. Salman Rushdie has recently argued that Islam requires “Not so much a reformation… as an Enlightenment”. On the one hand, “It assumes that ‘Islam’ and ‘Enlightenment’ have nothing to do with each other – as if the European Enlightenment emerged out of nothing, without appropriating Islamic thought and learning.” On the other, “It betrays an ignorance of postmodern critique that has exposed Enlightenment thought as Eurocentric hot air.” So Islamic thought was responsible for the Enlightenment but the Enlightenment was intellectually worthless. The first is that Islam did not require the Enlightenment, because unlike Christianity its tenets do not involve the same conflict between religion and science. As the Egyptian scholar AO Altwaijri has written, “Western enlightenment was completely opposed to religion and it still adopts the same attitude. Islamic enlightenment, on the contrary, combines belief and science, religion and reason, in a reasonable equilibrium between these components.” Islam is certainly less dependent than Christianity on miracles or what Tom Paine called “Improbable happenings”, but ultimately, because it counterposes reason to revelation, Enlightenment thought casts doubt on all religions – Christianity, Islam, Judaism, Hinduism and Buddhism alike. The history of the Islamic world shows that it also raised many of the themes which later became associated with the Enlightenment, and did so earlier in time. The issue is therefore why the Enlightenment became dominant in the West and not in the Islamic world – or indeed in those other parts of the world, like China, which had previously been materially more advanced than the West. The comparative basis for the critique of Islam is the Enlightenment that occurred in Europe and North America between the mid-17th and early 19th centuries, but the terms of the argument are changed in relation to Islam. Enlightenment thinkers also took a far more complex attitude to Islam than their present day admirers would have us believe. As Jonathan Israel recounts in his important history, Radical Enlightenment, “On the one hand, Islam is viewed positively, even enthusiastically, as a purified form of revealed religion, stripped of the many imperfections of Judaism and Christianity, and hence reassuringly akin to deism. On the other, Islam is more often regarded with hostility and contempt as a primitive, grossly superstitious religion like Judaism and Christianity, and one no less, or still more, adapted to promoting despotism.” Edward Gibbon wrote in a remarkably balanced way about Mohammed and the foundation of Islam in The Decline And Fall Of The Roman Empire, particularly given his generally critical attitude to Christianity. In general the Enlightenment did not regard Islam as being any better or any worse than Christianity. The question is, after over 100 years of imperialist intervention, does the Islamic world today have to reproduce the experience of the West, from Renaissance to Reformation to Enlightenment? In 1959 one Afghan intellectual, Najim oud-Din Bammat wrote, “Islam today has to go through a number of revolutions at once: a religious revolution like the Reformation; an intellectual and moral revolution like the 18th century Enlightenment; an economic and social revolution like the European industrial revolution of the 19th century.” History does not do repeats. What future for Islam and the Enlightenment? We should remember the experience of the West. Our Enlightenment occurred when Christianity was older than Islam is now and did not occur all at once. To say to that they, or people of any faith, must abandon their beliefs before we will deign to speak to them is not only arrogant but displays all the worst aspects of the Enlightenment – “Here is the Truth, bow down before it!” Why should Muslims listen to people whose self-importance is so great they make agreement with them a precondition of even having a conversation? Enlightenment cannot be imposed by legal fiat or at the point of a gun.

Keywords: [“Enlightenment”,”Islamic”,”Islam”]
Source: http://socialistreview.org.uk/304/islam-and-enlightenment

How did factories change the nature of labor itself? D. As the new methods of industrial production became more common in parts of northwestern Europe, they spread to other parts of Europe and the United States, Russia and Japan. Where did factories start, and where/how did the factory system spread? E. The “Second industrial revolution” led to new methods in the production of steel, chemicals, electricity and precision machinery during the second half of the nineteenth century. Focus Questions As industrial production rose, what type(s) of production declined? C. The rapid increases in productivity caused by industrial production What “New” markets did encouraged industrialized states to seek out new consumer markets industrialized states look/ for their finished goods D. The need for specialized and limited metals for industrial production, as well as the global demand for gold, silver and diamonds as forms of wealth led to the development of extensive mining centers. Characteristics? A. New social classes, including the middle class and the industrial working class, developed. New ideas about nationalism, race, gender, class and culture also developed that both facilitated the spread of transoceanic empires and new states, as well as justifying anti-imperial resistance and the formation of new national identities. How did anti-imperialism affect the Ottoman Empire’s territories? D. New states developed on the edges of empire. III. New racial ideologies, especially Social Darwinism, facilitated and How did imperialists justify justified Imperialism. These rebellions sometimes resulted in the formation of new states and stimulated the development of new ideologies. How did Enlightenment thinkers affect understandings of the relationship between the natural world and humans? How did political rebellions affect the political structures and ideologies around the world? Key Concept B. Intellectuals critiqued the role that religion played in public life, insisting on the importance of reason as opposed to revelation Focus Questions 25 How did the Enlightenment evaluate the role of religion in public life? C. Enlightenment thinkers developed What new political ideas new political ideas about the individual, natural rights and the re: the individual, natural social contract. What social & political norms did Enlightenment thinkers challenge? What were the effects of their questioning? What is the basis of national identity and nationalism? How did governments use these new ideas on their populations? III. Increasing discontent with imperial rule and the spread of Enlightenment ideas propelled reformist and revolutionary movements. How did imperial governments react to nationalistic rebellions? 26 Key Concept IV. The global spread of European political and social thought and the increasing number of rebellions stimulated new transnational ideologies and solidarities. Focus Questions What other new ideologies did the Enlightenment stimulate? A. Discontent with monarchist and imperial rule encouraged the What new political ideolodevelopment of political ideologies including liberalism, socialism gies developed from and communism. What were the main social, economic, and political causes and effects of this new age of migration? What were the causes of world population growth? B. Because of the nature of the new modes of transportation, both How did new modes of internal and external migrants increasingly relocated to cities. Focus Questions 27 What were the social consequences and reactions to 19th century migrations? A. Due to the physical nature of the labor in demand, migrants tended How were gender roles to be male, leaving women to take on new roles in the home affected by migration? society that had been formerly occupied by men. How did migrants preserve and transplant their culture in their new homes? C. Receiving societies did not always embrace immigrants, as seen in How did receiving societies various degrees of ethnic and racial prejudice and the ways states react to the new presence of attempted to regulate the increased flow of people across their foreign migrants? borders.

Keywords: [“new”,”how”,”state”]
Source: http://www.historyhaven.com/unitV.pdf