Teaching and Learning for a Sustainable Future
If climate change is the key process in the natural world impacting on sustainable development, then globalisation is the parallel process in the human world, creating both opportunities for, and barriers to, sustainable development. While globalisation is not a new process, it has accelerated rapidly since World War II, and is having many effects on people, the environment, cultures, national governments, economic development and human well-being in countries around the world. Objectives To understand basic concepts, processes and trends associated with globalisation; To assess the impacts of globalisation and the wide range of reactions they have caused around the world; To understand the interconnected nature of the major drivers of globalisation; To appreciate the complexity of teaching about globalisation; and. Q1: The story Good Morning World! was written to try to be “Typical” and have some relevance to students in as many parts of the world as possible. Beyond their world enclosed by trees there was, they were told, a wider world where there were hamlets similar to their own, and towns, and cities, and the sea, and beyond the sea other countries where people spoke languages different from their own. The major contemporary issues facing the world today – such as the topics of sustainable agriculture, gender and development, population, sustainable communities, tourism and so on in this section of Teaching and Learning for a Sustainable Future – are interdisciplinary. What are teachers around the world doing to help their students understand this systems perspective on the increasingly interconnected nature of the world today? What processes, issues and implications are students being asked to explore? Since World War II, and especially since the 1980s, governments have reduced many barriers to international trade through international agreements such as the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and the World Trade Organization. Up to 90% of music sales is by just five corporations: EMI Records, Sony, Vivendi Universal, AOL Time Warner and BMG. These ‘Big Five’ produce and sell recorded music in all of the major markets in the world, but have their headquarters in the United States, the largest of the world’s markets. Let us begin an economic recovery that is not only robust, but also just, inclusive, and sustainable – lifting the entire world. Life expectancy has almost doubled in the developing world since WWII and is starting to close the gap to the developed world where the improvement has been smaller. Seen through the eyes of the vast majority of men and women around the world, globalisation has not met their simple aspiration for decent jobs, livelihoods and a better future for their children. Slowing progress towards the MDGs. A 2009 report by the World Bank predicted that global GDP will decline for the first time since World War II as a result of the failure of governments to regulate financial institutions and globalisation properly. The problems of the developing world are also the problems of the developed world. At their meetings in 2009 to deal with the global financial crisis, the leaders of the twenty largest economies in the world, the G20 have replaced the narrow G8 group as the major international economic forum in the world.
The Enlightenment: Introduction
The Enlightenment, a revolution in philosophy, was strictly a Western phenomenon, linked to Modernism in the sense that certain “Modern” social and economic conditions propelled a new form of thinking. The Enlightenment can be understood precisely in terms of its entomology-that which sheds light: light into the darkness of religious “Superstition,” a word that very precisely targeted religious thinking dependent upon the will of God. The principal conflict of the Enlightenment was the contest between established religious beliefs and a growing body of scientific knowledge that grounded knowledge, not in the mind of God, but in an exercise of empirical evidence. The Enlightenment as a very particular way of thinking in the West resulted in the so-called “Death of God” and the rise of science. First, the Enlightenment established new philosophical ideas concerning the grounds of knowledge-epistemology-that is the knowledge was based upon empirical observation and provable hypotheses. A complex phenomenon, the Enlightenment was defined by one central question: how can life be lived and understood without God? If God was “Dead,” as Friedrich Nietzsche proposed a century later, then the Deity was certainly an animated corpse, going to its demise, kicking and screaming, and becoming reanimated at unpredictable intervals. The question for the Enlightenment today would be are these vestigial reactions or a genuine pendulum swing against three centuries of being “Enlightened?”. Unquestioning belief in God was challenged by two forces that proved to be critical to Enlightenment thinking. The concept of “Natural rights” would be articulated by Enlightenment philosophers, from Jean-Jacques Rousseau to Thomas Jefferson but it dated back to the Twelfth Century and was present in a nascent form during the Medieval era. Using the deductive and logical practices of science, rational thinking, and the powers of human reason, the Enlightenment set out to discover universal laws, to take the place of God. To the extent it was successful, the Enlightenment ended eighteen hundred years of spiritualized thinking. Although the Enlightenment could not guarantee fully enlightened thinking, but the alternative to the Enlightenment, with all of its a prorias was, as David Hume, remarked, “. In his recent 2010 book, The Enlightenment: A Geneaology, the historian Dan Edelstein, suggested that the modern Enlightenment, apart from its early roots in the writings of English or Dutch philosophers, really began with the French philosophes of the seventeenth and eighteenth century. In his 2007 book Placing the Enlightenment: Thinking Geographically About the Age of Reason, Withers stated that the “Where” of the Enlightenment was as important as the “What?”. The new philosophical system proposed a new society and a new form of knowledge that would have profound impact upon art and artists, creating new ways of defining both art and artist and developing an entirely new branch of philosophy called “Aesthetics.” The idea of “Artistic freedom” is an outgrowth of the Enlightenment introduction of the concept of the “Individual.” The idea of the defiant artist, challenging the establishment and shocking the conservative public is an Enlightenment concept of rethinking received wisdom.