Contents: introduction social capital for starters types of social capital the decline in social capital some critiques of the bowling alone theses the benefits of social capital social capital in organizations social capital and informal education conclusion – some issues with social capital further reading and references links acknowledgements how to cite this article. Putnam: ‘Whereas physical capital refers to physical objects and human capital refers to the properties of individuals, social capital refers to connections among individuals – social networks and the norms of reciprocity and trustworthiness that arise from them. The World Bank: ‘Social capital refers to the institutions, relationships, and norms that shape the quality and quantity of a society’s social interactions Social capital is not just the sum of the institutions which underpin a society – it is the glue that holds them together’. Whereas physical capital refers to physical objects and human capital refers to the properties of individuals, social capital refers to connections among individuals – social networks and the norms of reciprocity and trustworthiness that arise from them. Those concerned with social capital have looked to the density of social networks that people are involved in; the extent to which they are engaged with others in informal, social activities; and their membership of groups and associations.
Bridging social capital can generate broader identities and reciprocity, whereas bonding social capital bolsters our narrower selves. Bonding social capital constitutes a kind of sociological superglue, whereas bridging social capital provides a sociological WD-40. Putnam did not really look at linking social capital nor did he come to grips with the implications of different forms of social capital i.e. that ‘different combinations of the three types of social capital will produce different outcomes. Third, much of the main work undertaken around social capital has failed to properly address the gender dimension of social capital.
Further exploration of social transformations using the notion of social capital within ‘economically advanced democracies’. The Social Capital Gateway maintained by Fabio Sabatini by is the best place to access resources for the study of social capital. The World Bank PovertyNet – Social Capital Homepage: set of pages that outline the concept and the sources of social capital.
Emerging Market Multinationals: New Giants on the Block
In their book Emerging Markets Rule: Growth Strategies of the New Global Giants, Wharton management professor Mauro Guillén and co-author Esteban García-Canal shine needed light on this new twist in the story, one that has been largely underreported in the mainstream press. Emerging market multinationals are now at the top of markets as varied as household appliances, ready-mix concrete, seamless tubes for oil drilling, regional jets, meat, bread and candy. Harkening to the guerilla tactics first set out in Sun Tzu’s The Art of War, Guillén and García-Canal view highly targeted niche markets as a kind of stealth weapon allowing emerging market upstarts to gain a toehold in the competitive and often more saturated markets of developed countries. The Chinese appliance manufacturer Haier, for example, cracked the American market by catering to the niche market of college students looking for compact refrigerators. New technology, the authors point out, makes serving niche markets more feasible than before: Flexible production systems allow companies to produce small batches and still make a profit.
Even though a narrow market in just one country may be marginally profitable at best, the numbers turn favorable when serving that same niche across many national markets. The Mexican brewer Modelo, for example, broke into the U.S. market through Corona Extra, its entry into the very specific niche of light import beer – a market segment over which Heineken held a virtual monopoly. To some extent, old-line multinationals were accustomed to simply imposing their will on the market. They allow the market – and not just the market in a macro, impersonal sense, but in the form of the wildly variable and often unpredictable needs and desires of individual customers – to dictate strategy.
The enthusiastic embrace of niche markets is only one way EMMs have learned to follow the market. Orascom, a telecommunications company based in Egypt, learned early on how to negotiate the tricky politics of its home nation, and was later able to transfer those skills to emerging markets that established multinationals tended to shun. Learning from EMMs. The book’s final chapter is devoted to summarizing the methods by which so many Emerging Market Multinationals have challenged more entrenched firms for global dominance and to discussing how companies seeking to enter world markets might learn from their example.
Socialist Feminism: A Strategy for the Women’s Movement
INTRODUCTION. We have written this paper to express and share with other women ideas for a new strategy for the women’s movement. One is the direction toward new lifestyles within a women’s culture, emphasizing personal liberation and growth, and the relationship of women to women. We are addressing the paper now to women who share our ideas of socialist feminism, whether they are women working in the movement, women who have never been active, women who have dropped out of the movement, or women working in mixed organizations. Through the concept of sisterhood, women have tried to be responsive to the needs of all women rather than a selected few, and to support, criticize and encourage other women rather than competing with them.
In the realm of women and work, legislation which protected women was of great benefit in easing their burden. Increasing the availability of jobs for women and encouraging talented women to enter the labor force helps employers and strengthens capitalism but at the same time gives women an opportunity to come together physically and unionize as a collective force for change. The socialist feminist strategy aims at realigning power relations through the process of building a base of power for women through a mass movement united around struggling for our self-interest Our goal is to build this movement. Women have come both to feel less isolated through consciousness-raising and to learn that women’s isolation is a social phenomenon We have come to understand more about the incredible problems which women confront in daily life and to respect the solutions we have been forced to make for survival. With the isolation and unorganized state of the women’s movement in a number of areas of the country, many women who might agree with ideas presented here are not presently working as part of the independent women’s movement.
Many women in mixed organizations who know they are for women’s liberation are caught in the bind of either feeling guilty or hostile to the independent women’s movement. If we can do these things, we should be able to overcome the limitations of the earlier women’s movement and actively recruit women to our movement. CONCLUSION. To summarize, we have argued for a strategy toward building socialism and feminism for this specific time in history when we have strength in our sense of responsibility to women and yet weakness in our isolated situations.