Happiness is not an ethic, and no quantity of Utilitarianism having claimed that happiness is ethical will ever make happiness an ethic. Some men have been virtuous, and though the men may have also been happy, the happiness was not the virtue. For happiness to exist, there first must exist the components that combine to create happiness. Although a similarity of components may give rise to happiness in different individuals, the components will vary relative to each individual. The man whose foundational nature is one of love, his happiness may nascent from the combination of love, compassion, and the opportunity to give his love and compassion to the world.
The man whose foundational nature is one of greed, his happiness may nascent from the combination of greed, deceit, and the opportunity to accumulate wealth without regard of the hardships and suffering imposed on the world. The happiness of Utilitarianism did not focus on the elements that combine to create happiness, nor did Utilitarianism give attention to discussing how the elements might harmonize or disharmonize, and so it is reasonable to theorize that Utilitarianism was written without a knowledge of the nature of happiness. Within Utilitarianism there is no clarification of what Utilitarian Ethics might be other than the weighing of what actions might result in an individual’s emotion of happiness. The choice for correctness may be for its own end, and though the inward standard may arrive into existence through the logic of choosing the correct choice, still there are possible and necessary additional components that must be for their own end as well, and it is from the combining of correct thoughts and behaviors that an end-product might arise, including that of happiness, but happiness ought not to be the goal, but rather the unintentional product. If a person desires happiness then the person must first self-create the necessary qualities within him/herself that are sufficient to combine into creating the sensation of happiness, and the person’s bliss will not be a self-suggested self-convinced belief that s/he is happy, but rather the happiness will come into existence on its own, and it will be a true happiness.
Happiness is composed of specific elements unique to each individual and circumstance, and since the elements are unique to each individual, then no rule of law or philosophy can become a singular judge of happiness. Though it is not possible to now know what Mill might have had in mind when he promoted the Utilitarian view, there are possibilities of reasons why the happiness philosophy may be concluded as being useful.
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Forced to flee from Nazi Germany in 1933, Fromm settled in the United States and lectured at the New School of Social Research, Columbia, Yale, and Bennington. In the late 1930s, Fromm broke with the Institute of Social Research and with Escape from Freedom began publishing a series of books which would win him a large audience. Documenting some of the strains and crises of individualism, Fromm attempted to explain how alienated individuals would seek gratification and security from social orders such as fascism. Fromm popularized the neo-Marxian critiques of the media and consumer society, and promoted democratic socialist perspectives during an era when social repression made it difficult and dangerous to advocate radical positions. 7 The key theoretical essays outlining the Institute’s materialist social psychology were published in the Zeitschrift fur Sozialforschung by Erich Fromm. Although historical materialism tends to assume the primacy of economic forces and interests in individual and social life, while the psychoanalytic focus is on instinctual and psychological forces, Fromm believes that they can be fruitfully synthesized.
Psychoanalytic theories, Fromm suggested, which abstract from study of the ways that a given society socialized its members into accepting and reproducing a specific social structure, tend to take bourgeois society as a norm and to illicitly universalize its findings. For Fromm, natural instincts are part of the base of society, and he believes that our understanding of human behavior and social processes will be enriched by reciprocal knowledge of how society molds and adapts instincts to its structures, and how human beings shape and change their environments to meet their needs. Such a merger of Marx and Freud will immeasurably enrich materialist social theory, in Fromm’s view, by providing analysis of the mediations through which psyche and society interact and reciprocally shape each other. Fromm then discusses Freud’s theory of oral, anal, and genital characters, and how specific social structures produce and reward certain types of character traits while eliminating others. To begin, Bachofen provides insights, Fromm believes, into how woman’s nature develops from social practices; specifically, how the activity of mothering produces certain nurturing, maternal character traits associated with women, thus anticipating recent feminist theories of mothering.
In Fromm’s reading, Bachofen points out the relativity of existing societal relationships and institutions such as marriage, monogamy, private property, and other bourgeois social forms.