J.R.’s Zaphne Blog News for 05-20-2018

�Compassionate Capitalism,� An Amazon Best-Selling Book is Free For One More Day

Best Seller Publishing announces the release of Blaine Bartletts new book, Compassionate Capitalism: A Journey to the Soul of Business. It will be available for free download in the Amazon Kindle Store for one more day on July 15th. Business is the most pervasive and influential force on the planet today. The net of this is that business, as a prevalent and important force, has a moral responsibility to guide, enhance, value, and nourish the existence of all that it encounters. Business today seldom assesses the efficacy of its activities through the lens of anything but profit. 

The true purpose of business is to uplift the experience of existing. From our perspective, business is nothing less than a spiritual discipline, it requires the same integrity, commitment, intentionality, courage, discipline, and compassion as any other spiritual discipline. Compassionate Capitalism by Blaine Bartlett will be free and available for download on Amazon for 1 more day at: https://www. Compassionate Capitalism was an extremely beneficial read and a reminder that business isnt solely about the profits. Every aspect of our life today evolves around business, and so often people tend to lose sight of their goals and aspirations. 

Overall, there are many takeaways and I highly recommend reading it! Jeffrey RovnerCorporate America has made business turn for the worse. This book captures the idea that you can put the customer first and still find the resources necessary to have a successful business. Best Seller Publishing is a Los Angeles Publishing Company dedicated to helping business owners and entrepreneurs become the hunted with their best-selling books. 

Keywords: [“Business”,”book”,”today”]
Source: https://www.webwire.com/ViewPressRel.asp?aId=204205

Compassion, Christianity or Consumerism? The True Meaning of Christmas

As a result, we have lost sight of the true meaning of Christmas, and celebrate it in ways that are in direct opposition to its original intent. This year, on Black Friday, I was reminded about the true meaning of Christmas. Black Friday has become as much a part of the holiday season in the United States as Thanksgiving and Christmas. 33 million evergreen conifers are purchased each year, at around $35 each, for a market of $1.16 billion in Christmas tree sales. This is not suggesting to abolish Christmas altogether, but if every U.S. household reduced their Christmas budget by only thirty-percent and contributed that money to impoverished communities, we would meet the forecast amount to end world hunger. 

This tale of Christmas we share is a stark contrast to the true story of St. Nicholas. Today, Christmas is a celebration that revolves around fulfilling greed, not need, at the expense of the poor. The real genius-work behind this big façade is the connection between Christmas and Christianity. Christmas marks the return of the sun after the winter solstice – the resurrection of light and the perseverance of unconditional love which nature manifests each year in the new life and returning warmth of springtime, from the desolate depths of winter. 

He saw the true meaning of Christmas and put an end to the charade. While his means were extreme, by stealing all the presents he learned that the real meaning of Christmas had nothing to do with exchanging gifts, but exchanging love. Let’s each of us be that Grinch, and take consumerism out of the Christmas mythology. 

Keywords: [“Christmas”,”year”,”love”]
Source: http://www.wakingtimes.com/2015/12/20/compassion-christianity-consumerism…

Capitalism’s stormy sea

Capitalism as a total world system is a relatively new part of human experience. By these measures capitalism is merely the blink of an eye. Economy was, as the social theorist Karl Polanyi has so brilliantly analysed, ‘socially embedded’ in such societies and subject to the prevailing values of that particular society rather than the kind of all-determining external force it has become under capitalism. Those who want to transform or even just tinker with our current system of corporate capitalism are confronted with a formidable task. One of the features of capitalism that has enabled it to survive is its ability both to create and to take advantage of its economic crises. 

Schumpeter saw this underlying attribute as a kind of positive resilience that keeps capitalism from collapsing under the weight of its own contradictions. Capitalism constantly puts these things at risk in its restless search for new avenues of profitable growth. Not only has capitalism shown great resilience in overcoming the periodic crises it has faced but it has also even been embraced by its one-time ideological opponents: state socialism in China and the countries of the former Soviet bloc. Our current phase of capitalism is underpinned by a much named but too little understood political philosophy called neoliberalism. Usually this is a phrase used by critics rather than proponents of capitalism. 

Under earlier forms of liberal democracy these could be counted on to play a moderately autonomous role in tempering capitalism. This makes for difficult terrain on which alternatives to capitalism must be built. 

Keywords: [“Capitalism”,”political”,”become”]
Source: https://digital.newint.com.au/issues/102/articles/2344

We Need Sustainable Capitalism

What is clear to us and many others is that market capitalism has arrived at a critical juncture. The financial crisis has reinforced our view that sustainable development will be the primary driver of economic and industrial change over the next 25 years. At the Harvard Business School Centennial Global Business Summit held earlier this month, the future of market capitalism was one of the principal themes discussed. We founded Generation Investment Management in 2004 to develop a new philosophy of investment management and business more broadly. Our approach is based on the long-term, and on the explicit recognition that sustainability issues are central to business and should be incorporated in the analysis of business and management quality. 

While certainly not a complete list, the causes of the current financial crisis include: short-termism, poor governance and regulation, misaligned compensation and incentive systems, lack of transparency, and in some firms, poor leadership and a dysfunctional business culture. Forty years ago, Robert F. Kennedy reminded Americans that the Dow Jones Industrial Average and Gross National Product measure neither our national spirit nor our national achievement. Business – and by extension the capital markets – need to change. Such investments ignore the reality of the climate crisis and its consequences for business. 

Business and markets cannot operate in isolation from society or the environment. Business and the capital markets are best positioned to address these issues. We need a more long-term and responsible form of capitalism. 

Keywords: [“Business”,”market”,”National”]
Source: https://algore.com/news/we-need-sustainable-capitalism

J.R.’s Zaphne Blog News for 05-18-2018

Revolution from Within

A New Take on FCC!As we transmute the 3-letter organizations who no longer serve us, we the people, globally, let’s turn FCC into this simple affirmation: FREEDOM * CREATIVITY * COMPASSION. InterviewsListen to the author, Catherine Baird, explore the background behind Revolution from Within and how these ideas of freedom, creativity and compassion are just as relevant for Western society today as they were for a Russia terrorized by Bolshevik tyranny. Learn more about why Lenin ruthlessly exiled 160 intellectuals in 1922. The plots, controversial ideas, the untold history of the first dissidents to Bolshevism. How Revolution from Within started from the very beginning of the USSR until, finally, in the 1980s it burst through the concrete walls of communism’s faceless collective. 

Embark upon a voyage with The 160 to explore the psyche of a nation at one of the greatest turning points in history! Follow the unexpected twists and turns of these dauntless personalities … founding fathers of Perestroika, Glasnost’ and a world after Communism … to gain a glimpse of the formidable ideas that have helped shape a culture both inside and outside of Russia today promoting human rights, federalism, unity consciousness, free markets and local sovereignty. Freedom, Creativity and Compassion sit at the heart of this book as the author ties the events from over a century ago back to parallels occurring today. 

This is a story of how 160 completely unique activists, philosophers, and politicians kept alive the key tenets of a natively Russian worldview and, with the help of a most unlikely sponsor – the American YMCA – preserved their culture and beliefs for more than three generations until finally they could at last find acceptance once more. 

Keywords: [“Russian”,”more”,”today”]
Source: http://www.catherinebairdbooks.com

Capitalism: The Inner Battle

We live our lives through stories that reinforce certain values and beliefs. When a critical mass of individuals lets go of these stories, a tipping point is reached, and the scaffold collapses. A cascade of individuals like Newton let go of the story that slavery was acceptable, and change rapidly accelerated. Capitalism is a similarly constructed story, a collection of social perceptions that create a dominant world view. It’s easy to see capitalism as a system external to ourselves, but it’s much harder to acknowledge the stories we carry inside of ourselves that create and reinforce the values that sustain it. 

These beliefs produce a pervasive sense of powerlessness, and the story that’s erected around them-the story of capitalism-inevitably becomes a narrative of fear and domination. Trying to change these institutions without altering the stories that underpin them won’t create the paradigm shift that’s required to alter our self-destructive course. That reinforces the problem, especially when stories are founded on fear since people hold on tighter whenever they feel threatened. I found my own ‘hand of grace’ in books by Cordova, Charles Eisenstein and others who are writing new stories to replace the old. I believe that a tipping point to a new paradigm beyond capitalism will only be reached when enough individuals and communities rewrite their stories in this way. 

Local food economies create greater self-reliance in communities, and help people to develop an internal locus of control that can free them from fear and the urge for domination, thus creating the new values and beliefs that can sustain a different economic system. We can help by encouraging each other with new stories that describe a different sense of what it means to be human in the world. 

Keywords: [“story”,”system”,”people”]
Source: http://occupywallstreet.net/story/capitalism-inner-battle

Ma’ikwe Ludwig – Cooperative Culture Pioneer

Ma’ikwe Ludwig’s work integrates ecological, economic, social, political and personal approaches and technologies for a holistic view of what real cooperation and sustainability take. Ma’ikwe is a dynamic, compassionate and thoughtful speaker and teacher, and a minister committed to creating a world that supports the well-being and vibrancy of all beings. Her 2013 TEDx talk set the ball in motion for a major speaking tour in 2015, and she regularly does interviews, speaking gigs, facilitation work and trainings. She lives in Laramie, WY where a group of fellow economic radicals are working on starting an income-sharing ecovillage in the belly of the fossil fuel beast. Ma’ikwe’s latest book is Together Resilient: Building Community in the Age of Climate Disruption. 

Ma’ikwe Ludwig is a long-time cooperative culture theorist, practitioner and advocate. She started her consulting firm, Sol Space Consulting in 2002. She is a consensus facilitator and regularly works with intentional communities and nonprofits who are wanting to have more inclusive, relationship-deepening and efficient group process. Ma’ikwe is currently working on The Cooperative Culture Handbook with fellow practitioners Jamaica Stevens and Adam Wolpert. Ma’ikwe is one of a handful of national experts on intentional community who actively teach and consult. 

She has lived in community for 20 years, is a regular contributor to Communities magazine and a member of the Board of Directors of the Fellowship for Intentional Community, and started doing anti-classism work in 2015. She promotes income sharing, public finance, alternative currencies and a host of other economic solutions to ending capitalism and privatization, and creating a cooperative, locally self-determined economy in their place. 

Keywords: [“Ma'ikwe”,”work”,”Community”]
Source: http://maikwe.org

J.R.’s Zaphne Blog News for 02-18-2018

Compassionate Capitalism-Part 2

Is Human Nature Competitive or Cooperative? |

Another Victorian scientist, Herbert Spencer, coined the term “Survival of the fittest”, applying it to human society, claiming that competition is our fundamental nature. In 1966, Austrian ethnologist Konrad Lorenz published a bestseller called On Aggression in which he argued that human beings are innately aggressive, competitive, possessive and violent. A decade later evolutionary biologist Richard Dawkins published The Selfish Gene, about the human instinct for self-preservation; it sold over a million copies, and was translated into more than 25 languages. People who argue that “You can’t change human nature” make the mistake of assuming that because people are led to behave in a certain way in a capitalist society, that behavior reflects the essential nature of human beings. Therefore such people conclude that this behavior is natural for all human beings and that it is impossible to establish a society based on anything except a competitive struggle for private profit. Robert Augros and George Stanciu, in their book The New Biology: Discovering the Wisdom of Nature, found that in fact cooperation, not competition, is the norm in nature, because it is energy-efficient and because predators and their prey maintain a kind of balanced coexistence. Today most anthropologists and psychologists assert that the question of nature or nurture is not an either/or issue, but one of interrelation-ship. We are born with certain instincts and tendencies, but through education, upbringing and our own conscious choices, we can transform our conduct, nature and personality. Firefighters, soldiers, human rights advocates and accidental heroes may endanger themselves or even sacrifice their lives in order to save others. As part of the science of yoga, relevant to the idea of improving human behavior, Sarkar used the term “Bio-psychology” to describe how the glands, nerves and brain of the body affect our behaviors, thoughts and feelings.

Keywords: [“cooperation”,”human”,”nature”]
Source: http://proutglobe.org/2012/10/is-human-nature-competitive-or-cooperative

What We Owe Capitalism, In One Graph

As you can see, that number has dropped rather dramatically, starting as Communism began to fall and more of the world was able to benefit from economic freedom. It shows the relative number between those living in extreme poverty and those who do not, taking account of the massive increase in world population since 1820. The world has grown from about 1 billion people in 1820 to 7.5 billion today. It’s a tiny fraction today of what it was then, indeed a relatively small fraction of today’s population, and it’s dropping fast. Thomas Edison didn’t invent the lightbulb for free, nor did he – or J.P. Morgan, or George Westinghouse – throw vast personal resources at electrifying the world’s businesses and homes randomly. They were creating ex nihilo, literally bringing light to darkness, and opening up vast worlds of possibility in the process. If the left’s theories were true, not only would this graph show a completely different economic story, but almost all of the people represented on this graph would be dead, or never would have been born in the first place. All of pre-Capitalist human history, for thousands and thousands of years, were as horribly impoverished, with the tiniest possible group of “Haves” above the largest possible group of “Have-nots”, as the world was in 1820: indeed, most of it was quite a lot worse. What changed? The miraculous incentive-based system we call Capitalism, or economic freedom, which makes even the most selfish strive with all their abilities to improve the world around them. Third, the rise of global population, which we were promised meant that all of the world’s resources must necessarily be spread thinner over vastly increasing numbers with each passing year, thus inevitably bringing not merely famine but a consequent vast reduction in population, not to mention a standard of living for the survivors far beneath that of the Dark Ages.

Keywords: [“world”,”population”,”today”]
Source: http://rodmartin.org/owe-capitalism-one-graph

O’ the Compassions of Capitalism |Other Blog

While at work yesterday, I noticed a new line of products that BR is releasing referred to as their Green line. This line of products is currently being sent out to various stores in a trial run to see how it sells in different areas, ultimately to find the most successful locations and strategically place them there. Now, the characteristics that distinguish this line is that they, both the item and price tag, are made with “Sustainable fibers” that are “Eco-friendly.” To be honest, I wasn’t that surprised when I first saw this in our store given the growing national concern for issues of social injustice that is increasingly being worked into the marketing world. This is a product line that was created by Bono and Bobby Schriver, chairman of DATA, that contributes a certain percentage of the revenue to help eliminate AIDS in Africa. Various companies can sign on and distribute their own Red Products. Back to the previous discussion of the BR “Green” line. Organic and Sustainable New Products: Banana Republic values the opinions and ideals of our customers. That’s why we responded when we learned customers wanted eco-friendlier products. Notice the reasoning – Because BR values the “Opinions” and “Ideals” of their customers, they responded by giving them what they wanted in the creation of “Eco-friendlier products.” I find it incredibly ironic that commodities such as this “Green” line are able to be promoted and praised for their compassionate concern when in reality these “Concerns” are set in terms of an inherently dehumanizing, capitalist system that can only function “Successfully” if commodities are peddled to consumers, and all others in the market are reduced to competitors. Now, I am sure that many of the people involved in this “Green” line, and many other product lines like it, are very well intentioned.

Keywords: [“product”,”line”,”Eco-friendly”]
Source: https://ericroorback.wordpress.com/…/o-the-compassions-of-capitalism

J.R.’s Zaphne Blog News for 02-03-2018

naked capitalism

How New York City is tackling a mental health crisis spurred by Hurricane Sandy Grist. India knocked its new, $3 billion nuclear-missile sub out of commission – by leaving a hatch open Business Insider (David L). Brexit. Brussels warns UK companies of shut-out in event of no-deal Brexit Financial Times. Trump says he’ll take heat for immigration deal The Hill. Shorter: Trump has always had terrible impulse control. Judge blocks Trump admin from ending DACA program The Hill. Trump’s lawyers may have seen this coming, hence the willingness to deal with Dems. Don’t believe Michael Wolff’s book about Trump if you want the truth The Hill. Trump health pick wary of government drug price negotiations Associated Press. Resilc: “Wake me up 3 years after Trump beats Joe Biden.” By virtue of how the site has evolved, NC is much less vulnerable to being stomped on by Google and FB than most “Alternative” news and commentary sites, but the cost of being less vulnerable is less reach, which translates into lower traffic and most important, probably lower acquisition of new readers. US billionaire busted with stolen Greek antiquities Archaeology News.

Keywords: [“Trump”,”New”,”How”]
Source: https://www.nakedcapitalism.com/2018/01/links-11018.html

A Better World: Compassionate Capitalism

‘Compassionate capitalism’ urged for India. Indian entrepreneur Narayan Murthy, founder of global software giant Infosys, says “Compassionate capitalism” is the only solution to poverty in the country. Narayan Murthy: One of the world’s most admired business leaders Debate is currently raging throughout India over the economic policy of the new government, following a lukewarm media response and stock market jitters. Mr Murthy told BBC World Service’s The Interview programme that more had to be done to drive entrepreneurial activity. “We believe that if India has to solve its problem of poverty, we have to embrace capitalism, ensure that jobs are created, and make sure that market-driven policies are accepted,” he said. “However, to do that, the people who are the evangelists of capitalism, must conduct themselves in a manner that will appeal to the masses.”People must be able to relate to them easily. They must lead a normal life, a simple life, and people must be able to say, ‘look, if these jokers can do it, we can do it better’. To advertise on this blog / buy inspirational books / conduct motivational seminar contact on 9820073993.

Keywords: [“capitalism”,”Murthy”,”India”]
Source: http://sudhir-pai.blogspot.com/2016/09/source-sulekha-writer-our-india.html

[Podcast] David Meltzer – Compassionate Capitalism

This podcast is part one of a conversation with David Meltzer, Co-Founder and CEO at Sports1Marketing. David is an executive, author, and humanitarian best known for his work in the field of sports marketing. He is a featured speaker at conferences, corporate meetings, seminars, and other events along with being featured in The New York Times, Sporting News, Fox Business, and Bloomberg. At Terranea Resort in Los Angeles, RevThink’s Tim Thompson and Joel Pilger lead a Creative Entrepreneurs conference on BULLETPROOFING PROFITS. Knowing that being our topic, we recognized our audience might show up thinking we were going to talk only about money. Much to everyone’s surprise, we revealed that profits in a creative firm are not about money, but rather about CHOICES and maintaining CONTROL of your business. In David’s talk, he provided us with break from all the talk of numbers plus a terrific dose of inspiration. Sharing his ideas from his books – one titled Connected To Goodness and the other titled Compassionate Capitalism – David’s message featured his stories of success, failure, redemption, and purpose.

Keywords: [“David”,”talk”,”featured”]
Source: http://www.revthink.com/podcast-david-meltzer-compassionate-capitalism…

Is compassion compatible with capitalism?

While there may be compassionate individuals operating within capitalist systems, capitalism itself does not naturally merge with compassion. I say this with a much stronger understanding of compassion than I do of capitalism and all of its manifestations. Capitalism did not create competition, however it does need it for survival. Capitalism can never be cooperative or communal; it lives on competition. Competition does not allow for mutual empathic experiences. Competition takes advantage of others’ weakness, exploits vulnerabilities, and doesn’t look back. If there are no winners or losers, then a competition did not take place. Without competition, there can be no capitalism. Admittedly, capitalists can be compassionate, but they are not operating within an essentially compassionate system. As a system, capitalism features an elite minority being supported by a majority. It must be noted that capitalism can hardly be faulted for not being compassionate. It shouldn’t be said that capitalism lacks compassion any more than it lacks wisdom, or empathy, or mindfulness, or other lofty ideals/practices that many aspire to.

Keywords: [“capitalism”,”competition”,”compassionate”]
Source: https://www.quora.com/Is-compassion-compatible-with-capitalism

Compassionate Capitalism

Blaine Bartlett joins Ivan Misner to discuss his International Best Selling book, “Compassionate Capitalism: Journey to the Soul of Business”. Pay attention to the soul of your business or you might miss incredible opportunities. Business is the most pervasive and influential force on the planet today. Its activities transcend national and international borders. Its activities are not unduly constrained by financial, political, cultural, ethnic, or religious concerns. The net of this is that business, as a prevalent and important force, has a moral responsibility to guide, enhance, value, and nourish the existence of all that it encounters. In the world today, the absolute opposite of this occurs. Business today seldom assesses the efficacy of its activities through the lens of anything but profit. Traditional capitalism forgets an important variable, that of happiness. The true purpose of business is to uplift the experience of existing. It is not to produce ever-cheaper goods and services. Compassionate capitalism is an economic system meant to make a lot of money, help a lot of people, and have a lot of fun.

Keywords: [“Business”,”today”,”Capitalism”]
Source: http://ivanmisner.com/compassionate-capitalism

JR Test Site News for 01-24-2018

Tradinistas Want to Replace Capitalism With “Catholic” Socialism!

In case you haven’t heard, there is apparently a new small sub-group of Catholics who have decided that it’s time to end the American Experiment. In their own words, the Tradinistas are “a small party of young Christian socialists committed to traditional orthodoxy, to a politics of virtue and the common good, and to the destruction of capitalism, and its replacement by a truly social political economy.” “a small party of young Christian socialists committed to traditional orthodoxy, to a politics of virtue and the common good, and to the destruction of capitalism, and its replacement by a truly social political economy.” The young lady also opined that “The problem is not the state. The problem is exploitation. The state exists because of exploitation, and in support of exploitation. The state cannot and will not be ended until exploitation is ended, yet those who claim a desire to end the state refuse to admit that exploitation is even real.” Karl Marx would be proud. It’s hard to tell if this young lady is Catholic or Protestant but it’s telling that she would favor a candidate who is a pro-abortion socialist. Since the Enlightenment many of the young people of every new generation have wanted to cure the injustices they see in the world. As Winston Churchill once said, “A man of twenty who isn’t a socialist has no heart. A man of forty who is still a socialist has no head.” But the fact that young Catholic adults would think that socialism can be reconciled with Catholic Dogma and Social Teaching bespeaks of the secular-progressive education they are getting. Some young adults are becoming fans of distributism as a cure for what they see as the evils of capitalism. If man were virtuous in his behavior in the market, capitalism, or more precisely the free market, would function just fine. What if the Catholic Church was the only Christian Church in existence today? Would the Enlightenment and the Industrial Revolution still have taken place? What about the French Revolution, the American Revolution, or even WWI or WWII? What if guys like John Locke, Thomas Hobbes, Thomas Paine, and Jean-Jacques Rousseau had all been devout Catholics? And what if Adam Smith’s invisible hand had instead been virtuous behavior? He is a cradle Catholic who attended a Catholic grade school, high school and university. In addition to writing for Catholic Stand he has also had articles and essays published at www.

Keywords: [“Catholic”,”young”,”today”]
Source: http://www.catholicstand.com/tradinistas

Max Horkheimer’s Critique of Instrumental Reason and the Domination of Nature

Instrumental reason, or subjective reason, can be described as a tool for human self-preservation; self orientated thought; an instrument concerned with instrumentalising the world to the advantage of the subject. Instrumental reason has two opposing elements: the abstract ego emptied of all substance except its attempt to transform everything in heaven and on earth into means for its preservation, and on the other hand an empty nature degraded to mere material, mere stuff to be dominated, without any other purpose than that of this very domination. The ego, used here in the Freudian sense, is a product of instrumental reason, shaped by a mastery over nature, and “Is the subject that irresistibly charges ahead in the process of enlightenment”. The Enlightenment brought with it wide acceptance and application of instrumental reason, and it is through the narrowed lens of science and the domination of nature, self and other, that enlightenment undermines itself. Instrumental reason’s domination of nature works in both respects. Zuidervaart talks about domination in three ways; “The domination of nature by human beings [outer], the domination of nature within human beings [inner], and, in both of these forms of domination, the domination of some human beings by others.” Domination of outer nature has adverse effects, according to Horkheimer, in that that which cannot be manipulated through science to human ends is omitted from the bounds of instrumental reason, resulting in a distorted view of what is real. Instrumental reason contradicts itself in that the mastery of nature for human preservation inevitably leads to the destruction of nature, which in turn spells destruction for humanity. Instrumental reason, due to its subjective nature and relentless push for self-preservation, instead of emancipating, leads to the domination of outer nature, which in turn leads to domination over inner nature. In The Theory of Communicative Action, Jürgen Habermas points to some very damning contradictions that arise from Horkheimer’s critique of instrumental reason. Max Horkheimer’s critique of instrumental reason provides us with a set of theoretical tools and a starting point for a meaningful investigation into a dialectic of the Enlightenment as well as a critical assessment of current social structures. By shifting the focus from instrumental reason toward what Habermas calls communicative reason, he presents a possible escape from Horkheimer’s aporia.

Keywords: [“reason”,”nature”,”instrumental”]
Source: https://ldmac5.wordpress.com/2011/10/17/max-horkheimer’s-critique…

The Basics of Philosophy

Capitalism is the the economic and social system in which the means of production are predominantly privately owned and operated for profit, and distribution and exchange is in a mainly market economy. Some form of Capitalism has been dominant in the Western world since the end of feudalism in the Middle Ages, and has provided the main, although not exclusive, means of industrialization throughout much of the world. Smith devised a set of concepts that remain strongly associated with Capitalism today, particularly his theory of the “Invisible hand” of the market, through which the pursuit of individual self-interest unintentionally produces a collective good for society. In the wake of industrialization, the repeal of restrictive laws, and the teachings of Smith and Ricardo, laissez-faire Capitalism gained favour over mercantilism in Britain in the mid-19th Century, and it embraced Liberalism, competition and the development of a market economy, from where it rapidly spread throughout much of the western world. During the late 19th and early 20th Century, Capitalism set itself in opposition to the rising tide of Socialist, Marxist and Communist thought, and to the whole concept of centrally-planned economies. After the long post-war boom, during which the Keynesian “State capitalism” was in the ascendant, a new push towards laissez-faire Capitalism and classical Liberalism was led by the economists Friedrich Hayek and Milton Friedman, and championed by conservative leaders like Ronald Reagan and Margaret Thatcher in the 1970’s. Market instability:Marxists claim that market instability is a permanent feature of capitalist economy, and that the unplanned and explosive growth of Capitalism does not occur in a smooth manner, but is interrupted by periods of overproduction in which stagnation or decline occur. Marxists, particularly Vladimir Ilyich Lenin, argue that Capitalism needs imperialism in order to survive, as it expands its over-saturated local markets into other less-developed nations. Economic freedom:There has been criticism of the usual measures of economic freedom which are often used to justify Capitalism. The globalization of production, which is an integral part of the functioning of modern Capitalism, also produces significant pollution and waste of resources. Religious criticism:Some religions criticize or outright reject capitalism. Some Christians have also strongly criticized Capitalism, particularly its materialistic aspects.

Keywords: [“Capitalism”,”capitalist”,”market”]
Source: http://www.philosophybasics.com/branch_capitalism.html