J.R.’s Zaphne Blog News for 05-08-2018

The Good, the Bad and the Exaggerated in Michael Moore’s New Film, ‘Capitalism: A Love Story’

Michael Moore’s new movie, Capitalism: A Love Story, doesn’t pull any punches in its depiction of capitalism as the monster that is destroying America. Moore’s villains range from Wall Street bankers to Wal-Mart to Treasury Secretary Timothy Geithner, while capitalism’s victims include those who are losing their jobs, their houses and, in some cases, their faith in a system that is supposed to reward hard work and playing by the rules. So Michael Moore scores some points there, although he was very selective in the way he did it. I don’t believe in the level of redistribution that Michael Moore would believe in – unconditional, not based on effort. At the same time, Michael Moore’s conclusion isn’t that we need to have more regulatory reform, especially to protect consumers, which is something I think we are in great need of – or that we simply need some more redistribution, which I also agree with if done smartly. 

Michael Moore was right that the mortgage area needs serious regulatory reform in order to make mortgages very transparent. A lot of people wanted something more than they could afford. So we have a lot lower prices than we had. It’s a lot cheaper to fly and there is a lot more competition. The problem is we have a lot of people who really enjoy flying. 

We all value art, but [because] a lot of people want to be artists, they don’t get paid [much]. No occupation pays well when a lot of people enjoy doing it – unless we simply tell some people that they can’t do what they love. In the mortgage field, a lot of people weren’t making well-informed decisions. 

Keywords: [“Moore”,”people”,”lot”]
Source: http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article/the-good-the-bad-and-the…

Jeri Hogarth: Jessica Jones & Female Capitalist Success

I’ve loved Jessica Jones’ ruthless lawyer, Jeri Hogarth, since she debuted in the first season. I thought it was a brilliant switch to make the comics’ male Jeryn Hogarth into Jeri Hogarth, but still imbue her with all the callousness, drive, and selfish confidence that we associate with high-powered corporate lawyers. That’s because Jeri’s queerness is never the source of her evil; wealth is. Jeri is a powerful, driven career woman, but the things that make her so powerful-buying into the corporate game, shameless self-interest, and a confidence that being smart and rich gives you the right to control other people-are also the things that so often make her evil. As the second season opens, we find Jeri doing much of the same. 

Jeri is rude to the sex workers she hires; she ogles her yoga instructor. Jeri is, as she’s always been, a woman who likes a little indebtedness in her romantic partners, her associates, and her friends. Her growth here was getting back to being Jeri even in the face of something she couldn’t control-something that, in its power over her and in the way it leads to her humiliation, could have made her not feel like Jeri anymore. In all her many facets, Jeri captures my incredibly complicated feelings about women like this. With Jeri Hogarth, Netflix is exploring those contradictions of female corporate power. 

We see Jeri’s admirable tenacity, intelligence, and confidence in a world that tells her to shrink herself. Jeri is a powerful, successful queer woman in a world that makes it really, really hard to be such a thing and still be decent. 

Keywords: [“Jeri”,”power”,”she's”]
Source: https://www.themarysue.com/jeri-hogarth-jessica-jones-season-2

Why Intellectuals Hate Capitalism

Mackey, 62, continues to set the pace for what’s expected in organic and sustainably harvested food. Because of Whole Foods’ educated customer base and because Mackey is himself a vegan and a champion of collaboration between management and workers, it’s easy to mistake him for a progressive left-winger. A high-profile critic of the minimum wage, Obamacare, and the regulatory state, Mackey believes that free markets are the best way not only to raise living standards but to create meaning for individuals, communities, and society. Conscious Capitalism, the 2013 book he co-authored with Rajendra Sisodia, lays out a detailed vision for a post-industrial capitalism that addresses spiritual desire as much as physical need. Reason: You believe capitalism is not only the greatest wealth creator but helps poor people get rich. 

John Mackey: Intellectuals have always disdained commerce. You might say that capitalism was the first time that businesspeople caught a break. Mackey: It’s sort of where people stand in the social hierarchy. Mackey: I don’t know if it’s a psychological switch so much as that they weren’t necessarily grounded in the philosophy of capitalism. They’re attempting to not fall, so they try to rig the game, and we have crony capitalism. 

Mackey: The impetus behind so many of these types of regulations in the workplace is, in a sense, to shackle business again-to get it back under the control of the intellectuals. It’ll stifle the dynamic creative destruction of capitalism. 

Keywords: [“Mackey”,”capitalism”,”business”]
Source: https://reason.com/archives/2015/10/27/why-intellectuals-hate-capital

Antonio Gramsci

Brecht’s key debate was class equality, where the influence of Karl Marx, Louis Althusser and Antonio Gramsci’s theories were and still are evident in Brecht’s plays. The Threepenny Opera: The Ballad Opera and the Socio-political Criticism and Change Bertolt Brecht’s aggressive political idealism and determination in using art to pose challenging questions about the conflicts between society and morality generated intense controversy throughout his lifetime. Brecht offers alternatives in life rather than Gay’s mocking characters that just make the viewer laugh 19 PDF created with pdfFactory Pro trial version www. The problems stem from the fact that when Brecht wrote the play he was only beginning to explore Marxism and he did not yet identify with the class struggle. Brecht’s final goal is that he wants the audience to leave his play with a logical desire to change society. 

Brecht is trying to make people think about the play rather than feel emotions. Brecht’s use of songs does not represent any attempt aiming at intensifying or heightening the conflict of the play. The songs in Brecht’s plays deserve some discussion because they are as famous as the play itself. Brecht exposes his understanding of death penalty in the play. The story of the play is dramatized by Brecht from an old Chinese parable. 

Brecht’s attitude towards war is derived from Marxism. Brecht should have something rather than cause and effect to connect the separate parts of his play. 

Keywords: [“Brecht”,”play”,”war”]
Source: https://www.scribd.com/doc/82102711/Bertolt-Brecht

J.R.’s Zaphne Blog News for 02-20-2018

Walking the Talk – 100+ Ways To Make A Difference

Over the years I have been deeply involved in fund raising, community development and what I call compassionate capitalism. Over the years I have witnessed a darker side of capitalism. As long as it doesn’t effect the bottom line it is blind to the environmental or community consequences due to their business. The time has come to call for action, to call for “Compassionate capitalism.” Already on the horizon are ground breaking books like, The Divine Right of Capital that promotes the dethroning of corporate aristocracy for what Marjorie Kelly calls Economic Democracy; or Bill Jensen’s book, Work 2.0, which calls for new labor contracts and the realignment of corporate assets. Perhaps we are better off calling for “Compassionate capitalists.” Patricia Panchak, Editor-n-Chief, of Industry Week pointed out in her March 2002 editorial, Capitalism At A Crossroad?, that according to a 2000 Business Week/Harris poll, when people were give a choice between the two phrases that they supported more strongly: “Corporations should have only one purpose – to make the most profit for their shareholders – and pursuit of that goal will be best for America in the long run.” -or- “Corporations should have more than one purpose. They also owe something to their workers and the communities in which they operate, and they should sometimes sacrifice some profit for the sake of making things better for their workers and communities.” – 95% percent of those surveyed choose the latter statement. Today there are great disparities among communities. The communities are broken down; they are without hope and have great need. In the Old Testament when Jerusalem was in ruins, Nehemiah heard the call of God to do something about it.

Keywords: [“community”,”call”,”capitalism”]
Source: https://walkingthetalk.wordpress.com/2007/03/10/can-capitialism-be…

Why Compassion Is Hard – The Next Step

Compassion underlies all world religions, most boldly embodied in the provocation “Love your enemies as you do yourself.” Yet in a world of violence and hatred, where people sleep in the streets of our wealthiest cities, it seems compassion is in short supply. At a time of year when we tend to dream of world peace, and to that end, guilt ourselves and others into being nicer, it’s rare that we spend time truly understanding compassion. Is compassion an innate behavior, or one that you learn?Why is it hard to show strangers compassion?How can we be more compassionate in our daily lives? Robert Wright, a journalist and philosopher and author of several books on the biology of compassion, sees compassion as a natural process of evolution. “It happened through a principle known as kin selection. And the basic idea of kin selection is that, if an animal feels compassion for a close relative, and this compassion leads the animal to help the relative,then, in the end, the compassion actually winds up helping the genes. underlying the compassion itself.” Expanding compassion is the life’s work of Karen Armstrong, religious thinker and author of “12 Steps to a More Compassion Life”. Kristen Armstrong compiled a life’s work in compassion into a simple, 12-step book aimed at promoting compassion around the globe. Our failure to show compassion to others with whom we disagree causes political logjams, abuse of power, and otherwise childish behaviors that often cause in harm to each other and our environment. Finding compassion in times of disagreement may be more challenging, but the rewards are far greater. As compassion grows among us, and the barriers between human communities are torn down, the result will be more peace.

Keywords: [“Compassion”,”more”,”world”]
Source: https://thenextstep0.wordpress.com/2015/12/14/why-compassion-is-hard

War = Capitalism, Capitalism = War by William Bowles – Dandelion Salad

Crisis is capitalism’s middle name and, as in the past, crisis leads to war, major wars and indeed lotsa ‘little’ ones too. I don’t think you need a crystal ball to figure out that capitalism is headed down the major war path, it’s displaying all the same pathological signs as it has done in past decades; economic crisis, economic collapse, repression abroad and repression at home. War, better still, general war solves all of these problems, for the capitalist class that is. Pax Americana! Rule Britannia! It’s the ultimate end-product of industrialising war, just as capitalism has industrialised everything else and trashed the planet in the process. So what is stopping us from stopping them? Is it because we’re as suicidal and as shortsighted as the ruling class is? Like all honest socialists, I’m an optimist, I like to think that we are different from our rulers, that people are being misled, lied to, hooked on addiction to things by the all-devouring monster that is capitalism. Of course it’s extremely dangerous to draw direct analogies with the past but the common thread is capitalism, so you have to draw the obvious conclusion don’t you? Well don’t you? How can you escape the obvious when a man called Donald Trump heads up the most powerful, the most destructive society in all of history. The choice is yours and in a really bizarre, nay abhorrent way, perhaps we do have to thank Donald Trump, for he has surely and finally revealed to us the true nature of capitalism in all its horrific barbarism. For Trump is no aberration, he is capitalism personified, just as Hitler’s Germany was brute force capitalism. A shot across the bows of capitalism but no more than that. First we need a viable programme upon which to base our alternative to capitalism.

Keywords: [“capitalism”,”war”,”left”]
Source: https://dandelionsalad.wordpress.com/2018/01/22/war-capitalism…

J.R.’s Zaphne Blog News for 02-01-2018

Send in the Drones! Amazon’s Jeff Bezos Defends Capitalism on 60 Minutes

“RUSH: Jeff Bezos. He’s on 60 Minutes with Charlie Rose on Sunday night. Let’s go to the sound bites. This is pretty good. Charlie Rose says,”Every time a new Amazon center goes up, Jeff, publishers and traditional retailers shudder. ” You’re coming in here and you’re selling things at practically no profit margin, Jeff. How in the world can these people keep up with you, Jeff? It just isn’t fair. ROSE: Yeah, but there are areas where your power is so great and your margin, you’re prepared to make it so thin, that you can drive people out of business, and you have that kind of strength, and people worry, is Amazon ruthless in their purest of market share? BEZOS: The Internet is disrupting every media industry, Charlie. Their stock has been skyrocketing, and a lot of people have assumed – this is the brilliance of this guy – a lot of people have assumed that Bezos is a great humanitarian, that he cares about the poor and the little guy. Good old Jeff, he’s been characterized as a compassionate, feeling, understanding guy who’s practically giving everything away. At the Center for American Progress, at the White House, every left-wing liberal establishment, those words, “You gotta earn your keep in this world,” and “When you invent something new, customers come to the party, it’s gonna disrupt the old way”? “Yeah, yeah, but you run mom-and-pops out of business, Jeff.” “Not my problem. They can’t compete? Too bad.” And then they weren’t through, Charlie and Jeff Bezos. ROSE: Oh, man! Oh, my GOD! BEZOS: This – this is These are octacopters. ROSE: Yeah? BEZOS: These are, uh, effectively drones, but there’s no reason that they can’t be used as delivery vehicles. They got little platforms on ’em, and grips on the bottom where a package of certain weight could be held and it’s gonna fly to your house. You know, where’s it gonna land? Is it gonna land on your roof, gonna land on your sidewalk, gonna land on your driveway, backyard? How many of ’em literally are gonna get shot down? Do you understand, there will be people who have no idea No matter what, no matter how widely broadcast the news of these things is, there are going to be people have no clue, and they’re gonna look up and they’re gonna see swarms of these things, and it’s gonna be hilarious.

Keywords: [“gonna”,”people”,”thing”]
Source: https://www.rushlimbaugh.com/daily/2013/12/03/send_in_the_drones…

The 4 Principles of ‘Conscious Capitalism’

The truth is that by doing business the right way – being truly authentic, sticking wholeheartedly to your ethics and morals, and caring more about your customers and employees than your shareholders – you can achieve that gain without losing your soul. As the 20th local chapter worldwide, the results are clear: Conscious Capitalism companies don’t only outperform the market by 10.5 times, they even outperformed the Good to Great companies such as Fannie Mae and Walgreens by 300 percent – by doing business the “Right way.” Conscious Leaders are the ones who inspire loyalty and consistent high performance in their teams. Conscious leaders know the importance of taking into account all of their stakeholders. The really important factors for long-term business success are the employees and customers, and often the vendors and community as well. Greg Koch, the CEO of Stone Brewing Co. and one of the speakers at our inaugural event, talked about how he would rather leave a key position unfilled then bring in someone not 100 percent aligned with his firm’s values and mission. Finally, the company should be in business to do more than just make money. Great leaders realize that in order to become successful over the long term, you must provide true value. How inspiring is your company’s purpose? For example, would you want to work for a company whose mission it is to “Deliver maximum value to the shareholders”? “Andrew Hewitt of Game Changers 500, another speaker at the launch, puts it in perspective:”A 2013 Cone Communications-Echo study found that only 20 percent of brands worldwide are seen to meaningfully and positively impact people’s lives, yet 91 percent of global consumers would switch brands if a different brand of similar price and quality supported a good cause. “With this huge gap between societal values and corporate values it’s no wonder that purpose-driven organizations are far outperforming the pack. Doing good has become good business, not only because of changing consumer values but also because good companies are attracting the top talent, particularly millennials who are estimated to make up 75 percent of the global workforce by 2025.”. The fact is, many business leaders are already living these principles without even knowing it.

Keywords: [“value”,”company”,”business”]
Source: https://www.entrepreneur.com/article/246478

Capitalism Requires World War

The Saker has asked me to explain our somewhat crude statement ‘Capitalism Requires World War’. The present showdown between West, Russia and China is the culmination of a long running saga that began with World War One. World War One required debt-capitalism of the FIAT kind, a bankrupt Britain began to pass the Imperial baton to the US, which had profited by financing the war and selling munitions. The reintroduction of the gold standard into a world poisoned by war, reparation and debt was fated to fail and ended with a deflationary bust in the early 1930’s and WW2. The US government gained a lot of credibility after WW2 by outlawing offensive war and funding many construction projects that helped transfer private debt to the public book. Interest rates have been falling for decades in the West because interest rates must always be below the rate of return on productive investments. If interest rates are higher than the risk adjusted rate of return then the capitalist might as well keep his money in a savings account. The system is called capitalism because capital accumulates: high income economies are those with the greatest accumulation of capital per worker. The robot assisted worker enjoys a higher income as he is highly productive, partly because the robotics made some of the workers redundant and there are fewer workers to share the profit. In the last analysis, the current framework of Capitalism results in labour redundancy, a falling rate of profit and ingrained trading imbalances caused by excess capacity. Capitalism requires World War because Capitalism requires profit and cannot afford the unemployed. The point is capitalism could afford social democracy after the rate of profit was restored thanks to the depression of the 1930’s and the physical destruction of capital during WW2. Capitalism only produces for profit and social democracy was funded by taxing profits after WW2. Post WW2 growth in labour productivity, due to automation, itself due to oil & gas replacing coal, meant workers could be better off. Have we not already reached the point where large numbers of the working class can neither feed themselves nor afford a roof over their heads?13% of the UK working age population is out of work and receiving out of work benefits.

Keywords: [“rate”,”work”,”War”]
Source: http://thesaker.is/capitalism-requires-world-war

JR Test Site News for 01-26-2018

THREE TITLES for the PRICE OF ONE.

Take our friends the du Ponts, the powder people – didn’t one of them testify before a Senate committee recently that their powder won the war? Or saved the world for democracy? Or something? How did they do in the war? They were a patriotic corporation. The General Chemical Company averaged a profit for the three years before the war of a little over $800,000 a year. American Sugar Refining Company averaged $2,000,000 a year for the three years before the war. The Administration names a committee – with the War and Navy Departments ably represented under the chairmanship of a Wall Street speculator – to limit profits in war time. After the Civil War no new medals were issued until the Spanish-American War.In the World War, we used propaganda to make the boys accept conscription. So capital won’t permit the taking of the profit out of war until the people – those who do the suffering and still pay the price – make up their minds that those they elect to office shall do their bidding, and not that of the profiteers. Another step necessary in this fight to smash the war racket is the limited plebiscite to determine whether a war should be declared. There wouldn’t be very much sense in having a 76-year-old president of a munitions factory or the flat-footed head of an international banking firm or the cross-eyed manager of a uniform manufacturing plant – all of whom see visions of tremendous profits in the event of war – voting on whether the nation should go to war or not. To summarize: Three steps must be taken to smash the war racket. Looking back, Woodrow Wilson was re-elected president in 1916 on a platform that he had “Kept us out of war” and on the implied promise that he would “Keep us out of war.” Yet, five months later he asked Congress to declare war on Germany. Had secrecy been outlawed as far as war negotiations were concerned, and had the press been invited to be present at that conference, or had radio been available to broadcast the proceedings, America never would have entered the World War. Very little has been accomplished to assure us that the World War was really the war to end all wars.

Keywords: [“War”,”profit”,”year”]
Source: http://www.lexrex.com/enlightened/articles/warisaracket.htm

Invisible Hand

The term “Invisible hand” is a metaphor for how, in a free market economy, self-interested individuals operate through a system of mutual interdependence to promote the general benefit of society at large. BREAKING DOWN ‘Invisible Hand’ There are two critical ideas behind the invisible hand. First, voluntary trades in a free market produce unintentional and widespread benefits. Each free exchange creates signals about which goods and services are valuable and how difficult they are to bring to market. “Every individual necessarily labors to render the annual revenue of the society as great as he can … He intends only his own gain, and he is in this, as in many other cases, led by an invisible hand to promote an end which was no part of his intention … By pursuing his own interests, he frequently promotes that of the society more effectually than when he really intends to promote it. I have never known much good done by those who affected to trade for the public good.” Smith only mentioned the invisible hand three times and just once in “The Wealth of Nations,” leaving a rather nebulous concept. Later economists better explained Smith’s invisible hand, especially F.A. Hayek’s “Spontaneous order” and Joseph Schumpeter’s “Creative destruction.” This is well-demonstrated through a famous example in Richard Cantillon’s “An Essay on Economic Theory”, the book from which Smith developed his invisible hand concept. The successful farmers introduced better equipment and techniques, and brought to market only those goods for which consumers were willing to pay. Smith’s invisible hand became one of the primary justifications for an economic system of free market capitalism. Even government rules sometimes try to incorporate the invisible hand. Former Fed Chairman Ben Bernanke explained the “Market-based approach is regulation by the invisible hand” which “Aims to align the incentives of market participants with the objectives of the regulator.”

Keywords: [“Invisible”,”hand”,”market”]
Source: https://www.investopedia.com/terms/i/invisiblehand.asp

The Catholic work ethic

Like all Lutherans, each Sunday I was further enlightened about Catholic wickedness and about how Martin Luther had set us free to think for ourselves and to seek knowledge, thereby bringing about the modern world. Although I had outgrown much of this by the time I entered graduate school, once there I was instructed in depth and detail in the gospel of Max Weber: that Protestantism gave birth to a unique work ethic that spawned capitalism, and thus it is that modernity is a direct result of the Reformation. Even now, Weber’s thesis of the “Protestant work ethic” lives on among sociologists, being recounted in detail in every introductory textbook on the market. According to Weber, Protestants dominated the capitalist economy of the West because of all the world’s religions only Protestantism provided a moral vision that led people to restrain their material consumption while vigorously seeking wealth. Weber argued that prior to the Reformation restraint on consumption was invariably linked to asceticism and to condemnations of commerce. Conversely, the pursuit of wealth was linked to profligate consumption. Weber claimed that the Protestant ethic shattered these traditional linkages, creating a culture of frugal entrepreneurs content to systematically reinvest profits in order to pursue ever greater wealth; and therein lies the key to capitalism and the path to modernity. As a great deal of subsequent research has demonstrated, Catholic areas of western Europe did not lag in their industrial development. Fully developed capitalism had appeared in Europe many centuries before the Reformation. Everyone writing on capitalism accepts that it rests upon free markets, secure property rights and free labour. By this definition, capitalism was a very Catholic invention: it first appeared in the great Catholic monastic estates, way back in the 9th century. The Catholic Herald is your essential weekly guide to the Catholic world; latest news, incisive opinion, expert analysis and spiritual reflection.

Keywords: [“Catholic”,”capitalism”,”Weber”]
Source: http://www.catholicherald.co.uk/magazine-post/the-catholic-work-ethic

JR Test Site News for 01-24-2018

The Dalai Lama – Capitalism, Socialism, and Income Inequality

Why Steve Bannon Hates Paul Ryan

This week, President-elect Donald Trump named Steve Bannon as his chief White House strategist. Even if Bannon had never employed Milo Yiannopoulos or objected to all the “Hanukkah books” in the library of his daughter’s school, his appointment would still be remarkable – because it means that the next Republican president’s chief strategist will be a man who considers the GOP House Speaker his political archenemy. Bannon informed his staffers at Breitbart that a core part of their editorial mission was to “Destroy Paul Ryan’s political career.” In December, he told one of his reporters that his “Long game” was to have Ryan ousted from his Speakership by spring 2016. On Tuesday, BuzzFeed News provided us with what is perhaps the richest elaboration of Bannon’s worldview yet published – a transcript of a 2014 talk Bannon gave to the Human Dignity Institute, a conservative Christian group founded to promote a “Christian voice” in European politics. Some of the ideological divisions between Bannon and Ryan have long been clear and unambiguous. In his 2014 remarks, Bannon offers a much broader and more radical critique of the movement conservatism that Ryan embodies. While Paul Ryan champions our nation’s corporate titans as “Job creators” – whose prosperity is inextricably linked with that of the middle class – Bannon paints them as rootless, godless elites whose wealth is harvested from the exploitation of ordinary people. Lamenting the erosion of a “Form of capitalism” that adhered to the “Spiritual and moral foundations of Christianity,” Bannon decried the “State capitalism” ascendant in China and Russia – and the libertarian capitalism taking over the United States. On foreign policy, Bannon has evinced skepticism about NATO, arguing that promises of military protection make a future world war more likely – even as he insists on framing the fight against ISIS as a “Global war” between irreconcilable civilizations. For one thing, while Bannon has a far more coherent and elaborate political philosophy than Trump does, it’s possible than his is similarly insincere. While Bannon has railed against Wall Street speculation, his beloved president-elect has proposed deregulatory measures that would encourage even riskier trading activity. Still, the central policy concern of both Bannon and his following is immigration – and their goal is to vastly restrict the inflow of newcomers, both legal and undocumented, no matter the objections of Paul Ryan, mainstream economists, and the Chamber of Commerce.

Keywords: [“Bannon”,”Ryan”,”people”]
Source: http://nymag.com/daily/intelligencer/2016/11/why-steve-bannon-hates-paul-ryan.html

Steve Bannon: Donald Trump’s chief strategist has a grand vision for remaking America

It’s his éminence grise, Stephen K. Bannon, the chief strategist of the Trump administration. Using the vast amount of Bannon’s own publicly available words-from his lectures, interviews, films and more-we can construct elements of the vision for America he hopes to realize in the era of Trump. Bannon’s political philosophy boils down to three things that a Western country, and America in particular, needs to be successful: Capitalism, nationalism, and “Judeo-Christian values.” These are all deeply related, and essential. America, says Bannon, is suffering a “Crisis of capitalism.” Capitalism used to be all about moderation, an entrepreneurial American spirit, and respect for one’s fellow Christian man. So what exactly are these traditions that Americans are meant to pass along to future generations? In addition to “Crisis of capitalism,” one of Bannon’s favorite terms is “Judeo-Christian values.” This is the second element of his theory of America. In the 2011 LRF lecture, when Bannon declares the US faces the “Fourth great crisis in American history,” he still seems to suggest that it consists largely of the global financial crisis that began in 2008. Comparing the current crisis to events like the Revolutionary War and World War II, Bannon appears to believe that the US is heading inevitably toward violent conflict. The fourth great civilizational showdown-a “Global existential war,” as Bannon describes it in July 2016-pits the “Judeo-Christian West” against “Islamic fascism”-especially ISIL. But the threat isn’t necessarily limited to ISIL. Bannon’s remarks and his affiliations with anti-Muslim activists like Pamela Geller and Robert Spencer leave the impression that the enemy might well be Islam in general. There are a few loose ends in Bannon’s thinking-comments that seem consequential, but are vague or don’t fit clearly into any bigger vision. Another of the new administration’s focuses-the danger posed by Mexicans flooding over the border-is also a central theme of Bannon’s vision of America under seige. So it’s possible that the narrative flowing through Trump’s inaugural address and executive actions is simply what Bannon has calibrated over time to rouse maximum populist fervor-and that it doesn’t reflect plans to upend America. There’s also the possibility that Bannon is steering Trump toward the “Enlightened capitalist,” Judeo-Christian, nationalistic vision that he has come to believe America needs.

Keywords: [“Bannon”,”War”,”America”]
Source: https://qz.com/898134/what-steve-bannon-really-wants/

Trump’s Right-Hand Man Steve Bannon Called for Christian Holy War: Now He’s on the National Security Council

Steve Bannon, President Donald Trump’s right-hand man, made what was essentially a call for a Christian holy war in a speech in a international conference only a few years ago. Bannon, chief strategist and senior counselor to Trump, is notorious for his extreme right-wing views. In remarks to a 2014 conference at the Vatican, Bannon warned his Christian audience, “We’re at the very beginning stages of a very brutal and bloody conflict.” “We are in an outright war against jihadists, Islam, Islamic fascism,” Bannon continued. In his speech, Bannon articulated a view of the world as a constant conflict between the capitalist “Judeo-Christian West,” which is a benevolent force of “Enlightenment,” and the malevolent forces of socialism, atheism, and Islam. Republican strategist John Weaver, who worked on Republican John Kasich’s 2016 presidential campaign, likewise warned that, with Bannon as Trump’s chief strategist, “The racist, fascist extreme right is represented footsteps from the Oval Office.” Bannon made these holy war remarks in a speech-which has previously been reported on by BuzzFeed-at the 2014 International Conference on Human Dignity, the third annual meeting organized by the Rome-based Christian organization Dignitatis Humanae Institute. A glowing endorsement from Bannon is conspicuously featured at the top of the Dignitatis Humanae Institute’s website, in which President Trump’s right-hand man calls the group’s founder Benjamin Harnwell “The smartest guy in Rome” and “a very tough guy.” Bannon kicked off his 2014 speech warning that “The world, and particularly the Judeo-Christian West, is in a crisis.” Bannon criticized the libertarianism of figures like Ayn Rand for “Taking away from the underlying spiritual, moral foundations of Christianity and really Judeo-Christian belief.” He added, “That form of capitalism is quite different, when you really look at it, to what I call the enlightened capitalism of the Judeo-Christian West.”. In the early years of the 21st century Bannon argued, “I believe that we’ve come horribly off track.” He went on, claiming the time marked “The very beginning stages of a very brutal and bloody conflict.” Bannon spoke of the increasing secularism among young people in the West as a dangerous problem.

Keywords: [“Bannon”,”people”,”really”]
Source: https://www.alternet.org/news-amp-politics/steve-bannon-christian-holy-war-islam-donald-trump-capitalism-secularism-atheism

JR Test Site News for 01-22-2018

History of Early Modern Europe

1648-1715 France, under Louis XIV, flourishes as the mightiest European nation;the Early Enlightenment concludes with the War of the Spanish Succession Enlightenmentca. 1715-1800 a five-way balance of power prevails in Europe;Britain wins the Seven Years’ War, thereby becoming the global colonial superpower;the Enlightenment concludes with the French Revolution General Features. On the negative side, the scale of war between Western powers grew steadily. Notwithstanding these dramatic changes, political power in Early Modern Europe remained concentrated in the hands of the upper class, composed primarily of nobility and clergy. Over seven million were killed in the Thirty Years’ War, making it the bloodiest conflict in Europe prior to the First World War.K262-263,8. 1648-1715 France, under Louis XIV, flourishes as the mightiest European nation;the Early Enlightenment concludes with the War of the Spanish Succession Late Enlightenment. 1715-1800 a five-way balance of power prevails in Europe;Britain wins the Seven Years’ War, thereby becoming the global colonial superpower;the Enlightenment concludes with the French Revolution. During the period from the Enlightenment to World War I, the primary powers of Europe were France, England, Austria, Prussia, and Russia. The foremost conflict of the Early Enlightenment was the War of the Spanish Succession. The foremost conflict of the Late Enlightenment was the Seven Years’ War., which involved most of Europe. The Enlightenment period witnessed a string of wars between these nations over control of India, North America, and the Caribbean. Victory in the Seven Years’ War allowed the British Empire to absorb New France and ejected the French from India. The Seven Years’ War thus marks the rise of the British Empire as the supreme global colonial power. The Revolution ended when Napoleon, a celebrated military officer of the French Revolutionary Wars, seized control of the nation in 1799. War with Europe continued; the French Revolutionary Wars simply became the Napoleonic Wars.58,74.

Keywords: [“War”,”power”,”Enlightenment”]
Source: http://www.essential-humanities.net/western-history/early-modern-europe

Literature Periods & Movements

The Enlightenment, sometimes referred to as the Age of Reason, was a confluence of ideas and activities that took place throughout the eighteenth century in Western Europe, England, and the American colonies. Scientific rationalism, exemplified by the scientific method, was the hallmark of everything related to the Enlightenment. Following close on the heels of the Renaissance, Enlightenment thinkers believed that the advances of science and industry heralded a new age of egalitarianism and progress for humankind. Many intellectuals of the Enlightenment practiced a variety of Deism, which is a rejection of organized, doctrinal religion in favor of a more personal and spiritual kind of faith. The Enlightenment would see these ideas applied to every segment of life and society, with huge ramifications for citizens and rulers alike. The idea of a “Public,” an informed collection of citizens invested in the common good and preservation of the state, reached fruition during the Enlightenment. The trend of solitary reading, initiated during the Renaissance, continued unabated throughout the Enlightenment. In Europe, Voltaire and Jean-Jacques Rousseau were the torchbearers of Enlightenment literature and philosophy. In all honesty, the Enlightenment was a bit of a dry spell for English literature. Unlike most of his Enlightenment brethren, Pope was singularly pessimistic about the future of civil society. Like many other intellectual movements, the Enlightenment frame of mind transcended the distance between Europe and the American colonies. The vastly different political climate of the colonies meant that the Enlightenment was realized in very different ways. The principles set forth during the Enlightenment had consequences in the near term that very few anticipated, and these would spell the end of the so-called Age of Reason. Granted, there had been substantial gains made in nearly all walks of life thanks to the progressive ideas of the Enlightenment. Despite its apparent failures and setbacks, the Enlightenment paved the way for the modern world.

Keywords: [“Enlightenment”,”century”,”literature”]
Source: http://www.online-literature.com/periods/enlightenment.php

The Counter-Enlightenment: Neoreaction

Land’s prose is almost unreadably bad. What do the neoreactionaries want? The explicitly anti-democratic outlook of neoreactionaries has led to some commentators labelling them as Nazis or fascists. The neoreactionaries aren’t morbidly obsessed with race. Neoreactionaries would reject the state-controlled economic model which was central to fascism. The really interesting thing is that, for dedicated enemies of political freedom, neoreactionaries are remarkably sympathetic towards libertarianism. What neoreactionaries object to about the modern West is not just democracy and egalitarianism but the redistribution of resources that tends to go with them. For a social democrat like me, this is part of the whole point of having democracy – it’s a feature, not a bug – but neoreactionaries don’t see it that way. From the neoreactionary perspective, centre-left fiscal policies are destined to bring about nothing less than the end of civilisation. It seems to be a common rhetorical strategy of neoreactionaries to present their ideas as being no more than a perceptive and necessary recognition of the facts of life. The only real point of contact between the original reactionaries and the neoreactionaries is that they both have the same enemies – democracy as a form of government and liberalism as its content. Most of all, the sheer vulgar materialism of the neoreactionary outlook is foreign to reactionary culture and spirit. Mr Reactionary reads Evelyn Waugh and goes to the Latin Mass; but Mr Neoreactionary curses the IRS and has a STEM degree. A disproportionate number of neoreactionaries seem to be connected with the tech industry in the United States. Another consequence of the STEM degree thing is the near-autistic degree of rationalism evident among neoreactionaries. The most succinct summary remains that of the editors of RationalWiki, who suggest that neoreactionaries are just “The latest in a long line of intellectuals who somehow think that their chosen authoritarian thugs wouldn’t put them up against the wall”.

Keywords: [“neoreactionary”,”reactionary”,”Neoreaction”]
Source: http://counterenlightenment.blogspot.com/p/neoreaction.html

JR Test Site News for 01-22-2018

Age of Enlightenment & Expansionism, 1650

During the 80 years and 30 years wars, the culmination of the European Wars of Religion, France switched sides, to join the Protestants which were gaining power. Religious Restrictions Re-Introduced in France: Staunch Catholic Louis XIV abolishes the Edict of Nantes, which ensured religious tolerance for Protestants, gained after French Wars of Religion. War of Grand Alliance – Coalition Against France: England cooperates with other continental powers to curb the dominance of France. France had become a major continental power, at the expense of Spain. War of Spanish Succession (1706-14): Grandson of Louis XIV of France inherits the throne of Spain. Austria had a claim on the throne, and attempted to forcibly make good on it, with the help of the Dutch and Great Britain, which were mostly interested in avoiding a unified Spain and France. War of the Polish Succession (1733): France and Spain want one candidate related to their respective monarchs, and Austria wants another, part of the Habsburg family. Beginning of French and Indian War (1754): Conflict between France and Great Britain over disputed lands west of British colonies in modern U.S. Would become incorporated in Seven Years War in Europe. France performs poorly, sending France into a downward spiral, which helps bring about the French Revolution. France falls from its dominant position among European powers, while Great Britain rises to top after the French & Indian War. France still remains a continental power, due to its population, geopolitical position and cohesion. France Purchases Corsica (1764): France purchases Corsica from Rep. of Genoa, part of France ever since. France would lag behind, since it had a top-caliber upper class, but an uneducated lower-class, and would be ravaged by war in its near abroad and on it own soil, as was also the case with much of the rest of continental Europe. England rises to supremacy after its overwhelming victory over France in the Seven Years War and French and Indian War. GB became more advanced than France, moving toward democracy and capitalism, while France remained feudalistic and elitist.

Keywords: [“France”,”power”,”war”]
Source: http://worldology.com/Europe/enlightenment.htm

Enlightened Capitalism and Free Marketeers

Print or PDF. How is society best organized to maximize the happiness of the people? The answer is an intellectually based, empirically proven and emotionally satisfying business operating philosophy that. Free people freely engaging in commerce in free markets – Free Market Capitalism. Act with integrity, honesty and fair dealing, the result is the 6 benefits of Free Market Capitalism: Maximum wealth creation, prosperity and opportunity. The widest distribution of that wealth, prosperity and opportunity. Maximum opportunity for everyone to fulfill their potential. Enough wealth to provide for those who cannot care for themselves, Upward pressure on real wages. This commentary on the Enlightened Capitalist Jean Valjean of LES MISERABLES by Victor Hugo says most eloquently how the Enlightened Capitalist benefits mankind. Enlightened Capitalism is a comprehensive business philosophy that advocates what Victor Hugo’s fictional Jean Valjean did; “Doing well in business, by doing good things for others”. It is essentially a philosophy of enlightened self interest. Directly benefits those who make the business possible, indirectly benefits the community so business can thrive in a stable world. Free Market Capitalism, especially when practiced by Enlightened Capitalists has throughout history provided not only the best, but the only sustainable path to widely dispersed prosperity, opportunity and stability. The mission of capitalism’s greatest advocate, Adam Smith, was not to study the wealth of individuals, but the “Wealth of Nations”. Advocates of Free Market Capitalism too often fail to clearly say that their goal is to help the most people enjoy permanent prosperity. Present the remarkable success enjoyed by Enlightened Capitalists – the Free MarketEErs, Educate the public about Enlightened Capitalism and encourage others to adopt the philosophy, Fund Enlightened Capitalism endeavors in a multitude of ways, and. Advocate political action to create an electoral majority in favor of the policies that will benefit the most people: low tax rates, small government, less regulation and legal reform.

Keywords: [“Enlightened”,”Capitalism”,”Free”]
Source: https://freemarketeers.net

Consumerism and the New Capitalism

For the public at large, the integrating and transformative experiences of culture have been replaced by the collective viewing experience and by participation in consumer trends. The American public has been inundated by an unending parade of commodities and fabricated television spectacles that keeps it preoccupied with the ideals and values of consumerism. Consumerism is the myth that the individual will be gratified and integrated by consuming. The public fetishistically substitutes consumer ideals for the lost acculturating experiences of art, religion and family. The consumer sublimates the desire for cultural fulfillment to the rewards of buying and owning commodities, and substitutes media-manipulated undulations in the public persona for spiritual rebirth. As deceptive advertising and academic nihilism gutted culture of its subjectively realized values, the public was easily swayed onto the path of consumerism. Mass media perpetuates the myth of consumerism as a priority of the New Capitalism. As America settles into its nightly routine of television viewing, corporate profiteers are quick to substitute the lure of material luxury and consumer gratification for the fading spirit. In its duplicitous plot to throttle the public, corporate policy assumes only the self-interested exploitation of the consumer market and environmental resources. More than to simply insure a profit, consumerism is the means by which the New Capitalism maintains control of its buying public. In corporate capitalism the consumer is a target – he is acted upon. In the New Capitalism’s seduction of the television audience, the individuating personality identifies with advertising fantasies and consumer ideals. The affront on human values by mass media advertising has left a well actualized consumer but a poorly individuated personality. While capitalism has been linked to the origin of consciousness, consumerism and advertising deceit have become potential threats to consciousness. The affectiveness of the sociocultural symbol diminishes as its exploitation in the media siphons ineffable content to attract the consumer.

Keywords: [“consumer”,”value”,”consumerism”]
Source: https://www.westland.net/venice/art/cronk/consumer.htm

JR Test Site News for 01-19-2018

Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy

In the late 1920s, Adorno joined the faculty of the University of Frankfurt and devoted the greatest part of his considerable talent and energy to the study and teaching of philosophy. Adorno is generally recognized within the Continental tradition of philosophy as being one of the foremost philosophers of the 20th Century. As in the work of all genuine forms of critical philosophy, Adorno’s otherwise very bleak diagnosis of modernity is necessarily grounded within a tentative hope for a better world. Adorno’s philosophy is typically considered to have been most influenced by the works of three previous German philosophers: Hegel, Marx, and Nietzsche. What are the central philosophical characteristics of critical theory and to what extent does Adorno’s philosophy share these characteristics? Critical theory is founded upon an unequivocal normative basis. Adorno’s philosophy itself owed much to the works of Hegel, Marx, and Nietzsche. Adorno’s philosophy consists, in large part, of a dialogue with these philosophers and their particular, and very different, visions of the formation and deformation of social reality. What Adorno did take from Hegel, amongst other things, was a recognition that philosophy was located within particular socio-historical conditions. A recognition of philosophy as a socio-historical phenomenon and an acceptance of the socio-historical conditions of human consciousness remained central to Adorno’s thought. I shall focus upon three aspects of Adorno’s writings so as to provide a clear summary of the scope and substance of Adorno’s philosophy: his understanding of reason and what he termed ‘identity thinking’; his moral philosophy and discussion of nihilism; and finally, his analysis of culture and its effects upon capitalist societies. Adorno unequivocally rejected the view that philosophy and the exercise of reason afforded access to a realm of pristine thoughts and reality. Having summarized the substance of Adorno’s understanding of philosophy and reason, what must now be considered is the next most important theme addressed in Adorno’s philosophical writings: his vision of the status of morality and moral theory within this fully enlightened earth. Adorno’s moral philosophy is similarly concerned with the effects of ‘enlightenment’ upon both the prospects of individuals leading a ‘morally good life’ and philosophers’ ability to identify what such a life may consist of. The thrust of Adorno’s criticism of Kant is not so much that Kant developed such an account of morality, since this was, according to Adorno, to a large extent prefigured by the material conditions of Kant’s time and place, but that he both precisely failed to identify the effects of these conditions and, in so doing, thereby failed to discern the extent to which his moral philosophy provides an affirmation, rather than a criticism, of such conditions. Though largely unappreciated within the analytical tradition of philosophy, Adorno’s philosophical writings have had a significant and lasting effect upon the development of subsequent generations of critical theorists and other philosophers concerned with the general issue of nihilism and domination.

Keywords: [“Adorno”,”human”,”Social”]
Source: http://www.iep.utm.edu/adorno

Steven Pinker explains how capitalism is killing war

Those numbers were put together by Steven Pinker, a Harvard psychologist whose book The Better Angels of Our Nature makes the strongest case yet that the world is getting progressively more peaceful. Pinker’s argument has come under fire recently, with some arguing that it’s way too soon for anyone to say we’ve turned the corner from an era of war. We talked about the idea that war just isn’t as profitable as it used to be, why Vladimir Putin and ISIS seem to think differently, and what world leaders should do if they actually want to make sure the unprecedented peace of the past 70 years holds. Zack Beauchamp: One story you hear from political scientists for why there’s been less war recently that it’s just less profitable -countries don’t gain very much, economically or politically, from taking over new land anymore. There was a well-known study from Bruce Russett and John Oneal showing statistically that countries that engage in more trade are less likely to get into militarized disputes, and countries that are more integrated into the world economy are less likely to get into trouble with their neighbors. Independently, individual countries that get more integrated into the global economy are less likely to make trouble. In the 19th century, there was this cliché from [Carl] von Clausewitz that war was just the continuation of politics by other means: you consider whether to go to war. Finally, cost-benefit calculations depend on what counts as a “Cost.” If you lose several tens or hundreds of thousands of your own citizens, is that a cost? And how big a cost is it? Now, increasingly, that counts as a cost: leaders are less likely to see their young men as cannon fodder, which means countries are willing to endure other costs to avoid that one. ZB: Russia under Vladimir Putin seems to be a clear exception to this pattern – clearly, Putin thinks waging war in Ukraine is worth the cost in international sanctions and opprobrium, not to mention lives lost. Let’s say one of the benefits is national glory, and one of the costs is the lives of your citizens or, even more poignantly, the citizens of another country. The more you can jawbone countries to join international organizations and the international community, or get them to support these organizations financially, the greater the prospects will be for peace. In particular, there are analyses that show that peacekeeping forces, whether they’re blue-helmeted UN soldiers or more ad hoc coalitions, do tend to have a measurable effect in reducing the likelihood of a country’s recidivism back into war. It’s an outlier among Western democracies along a number of dimensions: the US has a higher rate of violent crime, it gets involved in more wars, it continues to have capital punishment, [and] has high rates of religious belief compared to other Western democracies. The more populist southern and southwestern areas are less shaped by the Enlightenment and more by a culture of honor: there are threats, and moral virtue consists in having the resolve to deal with them. So I’d like more thoughtful deliberation on America’s role, and a strengthening of international institutions.

Keywords: [“more”,”war”,”country”]
Source: https://www.vox.com/2015/6/4/8725775/pinker-capitalism

JR Test Site News for 01-17-2018

Enlightenment and Its Critics by Nadia Bou Ali

The West Point of Capitalism

Writing to H. G. Wells in 1906, William James lamented “The moral flabbiness born of the exclusive worship of the bitch-goddess SUCCESS.” Alarmed by the devotion this deity elicited from his avid Harvard undergraduates, James diagnosed as “Our national disease” the “Squalid cash interpretation put on the word success.” Two years later, Harvard Business School opened its doors to its inaugural class of the divinity’s curates. Duff McDonald is savvier than James about the ways and ruses of the gilded goddess, but he leavens his remarkable history of Harvard Business School with a kindred outrage. A contributing editor at the New York Observer and a writer for Fortune, Vanity Fair, the New Yorker, and other periodicals, McDonald is one of the nation’s finest business journalists. In his sprawling and capacious new book he chronicles the nation’s most prestigious business school-sometimes referred to as “The West Point of capitalism”-with an engagingly ambivalent blend of admiration, effrontery, and cynicism. Tracing HBS from its exalted inception to its unabashedly mercenary present, McDonald provides a gargantuan case study in hubris and self-delusion. Like other business schools that were established at the time-Wharton at Penn, Tuck at Dartmouth, Sloan at MIT-HBS emerged from the crucible of the corporate reconstruction of American capitalism. As small proprietors were increasingly engulfed or eclipsed by corporations in the decades after the Civil War, economists and capitalists forged a new conception of business activity and education. In this view, HBS and other business schools taught the sophisticated, even recondite skills required for success in the brave new corporate world. While being transfigured into a “Profession,” business also morphed from the “Trucking and bartering” described by Adam Smith into a “Science” comparable to other bodies of knowledge with disciplinary protocols. At the same time, business leadership assumed a more mandarin, platonic countenance; more than a cadre defined by organizational prowess, it was seen to comprise the philosopher-managers of a prosperous corporate republic. As the school’s first dean, Edwin Gay, explained to trustees in 1909, “We believe there is science in business,” and HBS graduates would be men with “Breadth of view and an inclination for learning.” Harvard’s humanist ancien régime recoiled; business students, they feared, would pollute the groves of academe with their swinish avarice and careerism. As the literary critic John Jay Chapman scolded an HBS audience in 1924, it was “Vanity and ignorance” to think that a business school is anything more than “a school where you learn to make money.” But the sanctimonious fantasy of corporate management as the enlightened elite of capitalism persisted. Seeking to drape business in the raiment of professionalism, HBS employed the renowned “Case study” method-a compendium, as McDonald characterizes them, of “Sanitized versions of corporate heroism” that, in his view, impairs the ability of graduates to adapt quickly and deftly to changes in markets and technologies. In his seven-year stint at the helm of the war machine, McNamara supervised a carnage that claimed the lives of nearly sixty thousand Americans and millions of Vietnamese, a mass production of death and dispossession facilitated by the methods he learned at HBS. So was there really such a great metamorphosis? In his penetrating chapter on McNamara, McDonald attributes the war’s ferocious futility to the data-driven nescience of “Slide-rule commandos.” Oblivious to the elusive or unmeasureable-commitment, tenacity, or intrepidness, especially on the part of the Vietnamese-McNamara and his fellow technocrats of slaughter thought of war as a venture in statistical analysis, not unlike marketing at Ford.

Keywords: [“Business”,”HBS”,”War”]
Source: https://www.commonwealmagazine.org/west-point-capitalism

The Frankfurt School

Working at the Institut fur Sozialforschung in Frankfurt, Germany in the late 1920s and early 1930s, theorists such as Max Horkheimer, T.W. Adorno, Herbert Marcuse, Leo Lowenthal, and Erich Fromm produced some of the first accounts within critical social theory of the importance of mass culture and communication in social reproduction and domination. Moving from Nazi Germany to the United States, the Frankfurt School experienced at first hand the rise of a media culture involving film, popular music, radio, television, and other forms of mass culture. Adorno’s analyses of popular music, television, and other phenomena ranging from astrology columns to fascist speeches, Lowenthal’s studies of popular literature and magazines, Herzog’s studies of radio soap operas, and the perspectives and critiques of mass culture developed in Horkheimer and Adorno’s famous study of the culture industries provide many examples of the Frankfurt school approach. In their theories of the culture industries and critiques of mass culture, they were among the first social theorists its importance in the reproduction of contemporary societies. The Frankfurt school theorists were among the first neo-Marxian groups to examine the effects of mass culture and the rise of the consumer society on the working classes which were to be the instrument of revolution in the classical Marxian scenario. The Frankfurt school focused intently on technology and culture, indicating how technology was becoming both a major force of production and formative mode of social organization and control. In the realm of culture, technology produced mass culture that habituated individuals to conform to the dominant patterns of thought and behavior, and thus provided powerful instruments of social control and domination. Victims of European fascism, the Frankfurt school experienced first hand the ways that the Nazis used the instruments of mass culture to produce submission to fascist culture and society. While in exile in the United States, the members of the Frankfurt school came to believe that American “Popular culture” was also highly ideological and worked to promote the interests of American capitalism. Freed from the mystification of high culture, Benjamin believed that media culture could cultivate more critical individuals able to judge and analyze their culture, just as sports fans could dissect and evaluate athletic activities. The Frankfurt School also provide useful historical perspectives on the transition from traditional culture and modernism in the arts to a mass-produced media and consumer society. Mass culture for the Frankfurt School produced desires, dreams, hopes, fears, and longings, as well as unending desire for consumer products. Thus, the Frankfurt school theory of the culture industry articulates a major historical shift to an era in which mass consumption and culture was indispensable to producing a consumer society based on homogeneous needs and desires for mass-produced products and a mass society based on social organization and homogeneity. Of course, media culture was never as massified and homogeneous as in the Frankfurt school model and one could argue that the model was flawed even during its time of origin and influence and that other models were preferable, such as those of Walter Benjamin, Siegfried Kracauer, Ernst Bloch, and others of the Weimar generation and, later, British cultural studies. The original Frankfurt school model of the culture industry did articulate the important social roles of media culture during a specific regime of capital and provided a model, still of use, of a highly commercial and technologically advanced culture that serves the needs of dominant corporate interests, plays a major role in ideological reproduction, and in enculturating individuals into the dominant system of needs, thought, and behavior.

Keywords: [“culture”,”mass”,”cultural”]
Source: https://pages.gseis.ucla.edu/faculty/kellner/papers/fs.htm